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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phonology is...
syntax is...
semantics is...
...rules governing sounds
...rules governing sentence structure
...rules used to communicate meaning

"cats" has how many phonemes/morphemes
...smalles significant sound units in speech
...smallest units in language that carry meaning

surface structure...
deep structure...
...literal ordering of words
...underlying meaning
practical knowledge used to comprehend the intentions of a speaker and to produce an effective response

guidelines...informativve, truthful, relevant, and clear
difference in achievenment tests/aptitutde tests
achievement test what you already know/ aptitude tests your ability to learn
...assessment of how well a test measures what it is supposed to measure
...keeping testing, scoring, and interpretation procedures similar across all administration of a test
3 types of validity...
...content--degree to which content of a test samples broadly accorss domain of interest
predictive--predict outcome adequately
construct--measures how well a test applies to a particular theoretical scheme
IQ is what...
...mental age divided by chronological age and then multiplied by 100
mental age...
...chronological age that best fits a child's level of performance on a test of mental ability
what is the minimum and maximum IQ for a normal person?
mental retard is below 70
gifted scores above 130
emotional intelligence...
ability to perceive, understnad, and express emotion in ways that are useful and adaptive
tacit knowledge...
...unspoken practical knowledge about how to perform well on the job
emotions include three events...
...1)arousal 2) expressive reaction 3) subjective experience
...unlearned characteristic patterns of responding that are controlled by specific triggering stimuli in the world
a drive is...
...psychological state that arises in response to an internal physiological need, such as hunger or thirst
...the processs through which the body maintains a steady state, such as a constant internal temperature or an adequate amount of fluids
incent motivation...
...external factors in the enviornment that exert pulling effects on our actions
achievement motive...
internal drive or need for achievement that is possessed by all individuals to varying degrees
intrinsic motivation...
goal-directed behavior that seems to be entirely self-motivated
Maslow's need hierarchy...
physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization needs
facial-feedback hypothesis...
proposal that muscles in the face deliver signals to the brain that are then interpreted, depending on the pattern, as a subjective emtoinal state
James-Lange theory...
argues that body reactions precede and drive is subjective experience of emotions
Cannon-Bard theory...
argues that body reactions and subjective experiences occur together, but independently
distinguishing pattern of psychological characteristics--thinking, feeling, and behaving--that differentiates us from others and leads us to act consistenetly across situations
stable predispostion to act or behave in a certain way
Allport's cardinal traits...
describe personality traits that dominate an individual's life
Who came up with the terms surface structure and deep structure?
Noam Chomsky (1957)
Highlight the language development in a child.
3-5 weeks: cooing
4-6 weeks: babbling
6-18 months: accents and first word
24 months: telegraphic sppech
preschool: comprehend/produce sentences
overgeneralize rules
How did Kellogg's experiment contribute to research on animal language?
He had the chimp Gua raised with his son. Chimmp never learned to speak.
Who tried to teach the chimp Washoe sign language? Was it successful?
Allen and Beatrice Gardner; able to produce various word combinations
Premack taught what to chimp Sarah?
taught her to manipulate plastic shapes that symbolized words
What is significant about the pygmy chimps in Georgia?
they show a limited understanding of spoken English
What evidence is there that language is an adaptation?
1)language associated iwth particular regions of the brain
2) children learn language quickly
3) human ear as well as human vocal tract seem to be perfectly tailored to meet needs of speech
4) some people seem to inherit tendencies to make certain types of grammatical errors