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16 Cards in this Set

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Pattern Recognition

Process of matching organized sensory input to stored representations in memory

Template Theory

Does the precept match anything we have stored in memory?

Multiple templates held in memory, recognize incoming stimuli by comparing templates, if no matches found then create new memory

-works well in controlled/standardized environments, input is much more variable in the real world

Problems of Template Theory

Obstructed objects


Cannot account for flexibility of our pattern recognition abilities

Prototype Theories

Modification of template matching that's more flexible, takes various instances of an object and abstracts out the common characteristics to create a prototype

Feature Theory

We store patterns as a set of features

Pandemonium Model

Feature Detector Model of Recognition

Biederman's Recognition By Components Theory (RBC)

-proposed we also break up objects into their parts in the process of recognizing them

-parts=3 dimensional geons

-we have an alphabet of ~36 geons

-these geons connect to make objects

Steps of RBC Theory

-Object segmented into basic geons

-We then classify the category of each sub-object, we know how to recognize them from all different views

-One recognizes what the object that is composed by these feautures

-small variations not critical

Non-Accidental Properties

Critical to identifying/distinguishing different geons; accidental properties are not; viewpoint independent

Repetition Priming

Evidence for geons, we can recognize objects faster when or more of the same geons in the object have been previously seen

Evidence that Geons Exist

Repetition priming experiment

Eliminating certain line segments makes recognition a much harder task than erasing other line segments

Crucial line segments: clearly demarcate geons

RBC/geons problems


Natural vs man made objects

No evidence for geons in brain

Gestalt Principles of Perception

-appear to have lots of ways in which we organize information into objects/groups

-together they are called gestalt principles of conceptual organization

-apparent motion

Gestalt View of Perception: Basic Tenet

The whole is more than a sum of its parts

Gestalt View of Perception; Law of Pragnanz

Individuals organize their experience in as simple, concise, symmetrical and complete a manner as possible

-impose structure on what we see

-group disparate elements in a visual scene into the most coherent and stable form

Figure-Ground Organization

One of the ways that we impose a coherent structure on visual scenes, organize perceptions by distinguishing between a figure and the background

Figure: an object in a scene that is the focus of our attention/more prominent