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116 Cards in this Set

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What did James (1902) do?

- stream of consciousness


- continuous flow, always shifting

what is meant by Conscious thought?

- aware of it (attention)

what is meant by Unconscious thought?

- unaware of it (without attention)

what is meant by non-conscious?

- unaware and inaccessible

what is meant by controlled processes?

- we intend for them to occur

what is meant by automatic processes?

- they happen whether we want them to or not

what does an EEG usually measure?

- consciousness and brain activity

what are Beta brain waves? What is the range of cps?

- normal waking thought


- 13-24

what are Alpha brain waves? What is the range of cps?

- deep relaxation, meditation


- 8-12 cps

what are Theta brain waves? What is the range of CPS?

- light sleep


- 4-7

what are Delta brain waves? what is the range of CPS?

- deep, dreamless sleep


- <4

what is meant by Circadian Rhythms?

- 24hr biological cycles


- regulation of sleep/other body functions

when are growth hormones released?

- at night time

what is the physiological pathway of the biological clock?

- light levels > retina > suprachiasmatic of hypothalamus > pineal glad > secretion of melatonin

what does a electromyograph measure?

- muscle activity

what does a electrooculography measure?

- eye movements

what happens in the 1st stage of the Stages of sleep?

- brief, transitional (1-7 mins)


- alpha > theta


- hyping jerks

what happens in the 2nd stage of the stages of sleep?

- sleep spindles (10-25 mins)

what happens in stages 3 & 4 of the stages of sleep?

- slow-wave sleep (30 mins)


- delta waves

what happens in stage 5 of the stages of sleep?

- REM


- vivid dreaming

how many times do you cycle through the stages of sleep a night?

- about 4 times

what brain structures are in the Ascending reticular activating system?

- pons, medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system

What do neurotransmitters have to do with sleep?

- play a role in being awake, alert, sleep


- acetylcholine, serotonin


- norepinephrine, dopamine, GABA

what is hypothesis 1 of why we sleep?

- sleep evolved to conserve organisms' every



what is the 2nd hypothesis of why we sleep?

- immobilization during sleep is adaptive because it reduces danger

what is the 3rd hypothesis of why we sleep?

- sleep helps animals to restore energy and other bodily resources

what can be effected by partial deprivation or sleep restriction?

- impaired attention


- reaction time


- coordination


- decision making



what is meant by memory consolidation?

- brain goes over what we learned throughout the day, helps memory get more stuck

what is insomnia? what is it caused by?

- difficulty falling or staying asleep


- can be caused by either physical pain, but can also be emotional (can't stop brain from thinking)

what is Narcolepsy?

- falling asleep uncontrollably

what is sleep apnea?

- reflexive gasping for air


- sleeping and body stops breathing

what are nightmares?

- anxiety-arousing dreams

what are night terrors?

- intense arousal and panic

what is Somnambulism?

- sleep walking

what is the "hyperarousal model of insomnia"?

- "theory" that the heart rate/body is in a heightened state which doesn't allow them proper rest

what is REM sleep behaviour disorder?

- lack of typical sleep paralysis, act out dreams

when does sleep walking & night terrors usually occur?

- deep sleep


- earlier in the night

when do nightmares take place?

- nightmares can happen whenever

define dreams

- mental experiences during sleep

when do dreams usually happen?

- mostly in REM sleep but can also happen in non-REM sleep

the content in dreams is usually _________.

- familiar

the common themes of dreams are?

- being chased, sex, school, falling, flying

what is meant by waking life spillover/day residue?

- brain goes over what happened during the day

what are lucid dreams?

- are dreaming/sleeping but are aware of it and can control dreams

how does culture play a role in dreams?

- plays a role in the meaning of dreams


- in our culture, don't think they predict the future


- other cultures/past, do put meaning to dreams

what was Freud's theory of dreaming?

- wish fulfillment


- below there is a deeper meaning, symbolism


- guide to interpret dreams

what was Cartwright's theory of dreaming?

- problem solving


- act out problems you have in real life and dreams give potential solutions to the problem



what was Hobson's & McCarley's theory of dreaming?

- activation synthesis


- random stimulation in brain and try to make sense of it


- takes sensory impulses and turn them into meaning

define hypnosis

- a system procedure that increases suggestibility.



how does hypnotic suggestibility differ between individuals?

- some are very easy to hypnotize, some are very hard, some are in between

what are the effects produced through hypnosis?

- anesthesia (blocking pain) = well hypnotized


- sensory distortions and hallucinations = smell/see different than what you actually do


- disinhibition = do thinks you wouldn't normally do



what is meant by dissociation?

- splitting mental processes into two separate, simultaneous streams of awareness

what are the myths about hypnosis?

- relaxation is necessary


- its a sleep like state


- hypnosis can allow people to "relive" the past


- you lose control


- you can remember things better


- you can perform impossible feats

what is meant by "illusory correlations"?

- correlations that cause illusions


- think things are correlated but are not

define meditation

- practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control

what do psychoactive drugs do?

- modify mental, emotional, or behavioural functioning

what do Narcotics do? Examples

- pain relieving


- morphine, codeine

what are Sedatives? Examples.

- sleep inducing


- barbiturates, downers

what do Stimulants do? Examples.

- increase CNS activity


- caffeine, nicotine, cocaine

what do hallucinogens do? Examples.

- distort sensory and perceptual experience


- LSD

what does Cannabis do?

- produce mild, relaxed euphoria

what does alcohol do?

- produces relaxed euphoria, decreases inhibitions

what does MDMA do?

- produces a warm, friendly euphoria


- similar to hallucinogens and amphetamines

define tolerance

- the progressive decrease in a person's responsiveness to a drug

Drugs can ......

- mimic neurotransmitters (agonists)


- block their (neurotransmitters) effects (antagonists)


- increase the release of neurotransmitters


- prevent reuptake


- trigger the "reward" pathway in the brain (related to dopamine)

define learning

- any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge due to experience

what are phobias?

- irrational fears


- excessive anxiety, panic

what is agoraphobia?

- fear of being in public places

what is meant by conditioning?

- learning connections between events that occur


- (food - food poisoning - can't seem to eat that food again)



what are the two kinds of learning?

- classical & operant

who came up with classical conditioning?

- Ivan Pavlov


- early 1900s

what is an unconditioned stimulus?

- A stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response


- food



what is a conditioned stimulus?

- a previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response


- bell sounds

what is an unconditioned response?

- behavior that occurs naturally due to a given stimulus


- salivating to food

what is a conditioned response?

- an automatic response established by training to an ordinarily neutral stimulus.


- salivating to bell sound

you can condition physiological processes as well (true/false)

- true

what is meant by "trial"?

- pairing of UCS and CS

what is meant by "elicited" ?

- reflexes are relatively automatic


what is meant by acquisitions?

- initial stage in learning

what is meant by stimulus contiguity?

- CS and UCS occurring together in time and space

what are the 3 types of classical conditioning?

- Simultaneous conditioning


- short-delayed conditioning


- trace conditioning



what is meant by simultaneous conditioning?

- CS and UCS begin and end together

what is meany by short-delayed conditioning?

- CS begins just before the UCS, end together

what is meant by trace conditioning?

- CS begins and ends before UCS is presented

what is meant by extinction when talking about classical conditioning?

- CS and UCS no longer paired, CR response to CS weakened

what is meant by spontaneous recovery when talking about classical conditioning?

- extinguished response (CR) reappears after period of non-paring

what is meant by stimulus generalization when talking about classical conditioning?

- CR occurs to other stimuli similar to the CS

what is meant by discrimination when talking about classical conditioning?

- learn to response to a specific stimulus

what is meant by Higher-order conditioning when talking about classical conditioning?

- use CS as if it is an UCS to pair the new stimulus to the response

what is meant by evaluative conditioning when talking about classical conditioning?

- pair stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli to change liking

what is meant by the renewal effect when talking about classical conditioning?

extinguish response in different environment, returns when back in original environment.

who came up with the Law of Effect?

- Edward L. Thorndike

define operant conditioning

- learning where responses come to be controlled by their consequences

what is the Law of Effect?

- if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to good effect, the association between stimulus & response is strengthened

who came up with operant conditioning?

- B.F. Skinner (1953)


- principle of reinforcement


- tend to repeat actions that lead to favourable consequences

what is meant by reinforcement contingencies when talking about operant conditioning?

- rules/circumstances that determine when a response leads to reinforcement

what is meant by primary reinforcers?

- satisfy biological needs


- food

what is meant by secondary reinforcers?

- learned to value it, awards, money

what is meant by "discriminative stimuli"

- cues that indicate whether reinforcement will occur or not

what is meant by "superstitious behaviour"?

- associate an irrelevant behaviour with reinforcement

what are the schedules of reinforcement?

- Continuous (every time)


- intermittent (partial) - (not every time)

what is meant by positive reinforcement?

- response followed by rewarding stimulus

what is negative reinforcement?

- response followed by removal of an aversive stimulus

what is meant by punishment?

- add aversive stimuli


- remove rewarding stimuli

what is meant by external motivation?

- motivation comes from a pressure or consequences outside of oneself (rewards)

what is meant by internal motivation?

- drive to do something because you want to do it

what is meant by Latent learning? Examples.

- not realizing that learning has occurred until you go and test it


- not apparent when it first occurs, can happen without any reinforcement contingency


- ex. cognitive maps

what are cognitive maps?

- mental representations that help us navigate

Biological constraints on conditioning, what is an example of this?

- instinctive drift - natural responses get in way of conditioning

what is meant by "evolutionary perspectives on learning"?

- each species ready to learn certain things

what is meant by "response outcome relations?"

- more likely to strengthen response if the person (or animal) thinks it caused the outcome

who came up with observational learning?

- Albert Bandura

what is observational learning?

- learn by watching others


- watch what they do

what is Vicarious conditioning?

- see if the model is rewarded or punished

what are the 4 key processes of observational learning?

- attention (pay attention to model)


- retention - remember what observed


- reproduction - able to try the behaviour


- motivation - want to try the behaviour

what are mirror neurons?

- neurons that fire when you see someone else perform an action