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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a drug?
A substance that, when taken into the body, alters the structure of functioning of the minds of our bodies (either by enhancing, inhibiting, or distorting), excluding those nutrients that are related to normal functioning.
What are the top three most commonly used legal substances?
Alcohol,Tobacco, and Caffeine
What is a biopsychosocial model?
An integrated model examining the combination of biological, psychological, and social factors that lead a person to drug use.
What is a factor that involves biological, psychological, and social factors?
Family Origin - affects all three, genetic predisposition in the family, increased stress, depression, and low self esteem, makes it incredibly available and peer pressure.
What are the three factors that affect drug use?
Biological - Genetic Predisposition
Social - Peer Pressure
Psychological - Depression
What are the four factors that affect Drug Use?
What is a Pharmalogical Factor?
How a particular drug affects the body -- Cocaine crossing the BBB faster than other drugs
What is a cultural factor?
How society's views are determined by custom and tradition -- Wearing nice clothing to a restraunt instead of going naked
What is a Social Factor?
Include specific reasons why a drug is taken, such as peer group members, family upbringing, membership in subcultures -- Peer Pressure
What is a Contextual Factor?
The physical surroundings where the drug is taken, a rock concert, nightclub, forest preserve, outdoors or indoors
What are the two factors that can keep a person from using drugs or help them use drugs?
Risk Factors and Protective factors, having more protective factors than risk factors will decrease your likliness for using drugs
What are Risk Factors? Name some examples
Tendency towards nonconformity
- irregular school attendance
poor relationships with parents
behavioral difficulties
peer pressure
drug availability
perception of risk/how much is involved
What are Protective Factors? Name some examples?
Keep a person safe
- Intact hoe environment (strong parent-child bond)
Positive educational experience
Conventional Peer Relationships
Close with People in and outside of the family (closeness to adult outside of family)
High self-esteem
What are the two different types of drug use>
Instrumental: a person is taking a drug with a specific socially-approved goal in mind
Recreational: a person is taking a drug for the sole purpose of experiencing its psychoactive properties
What are the two Classifications of Drugs being Taken?
Illegal or Illicit: the use of the drug is legally prohibited or limited by a prescription (marajyuana, cocaine, LSD, Use of Zoloft without perscription)
Licit: drug can be used at the person's discretion; sometimes limitations apply
What is a Legal Instrumental Use for Drugs? (Example)
Using Tylenol in order to get rid of a headache
What is a Illegal Instrumental Use for Drugs? (Example)
Using illegal performance enhancement steriods
What is a Legal Recreational Use for Drugs?
Drinking Coffee, or Going to the Bars when you are 21
What is an Example of Illegal Recreational use?
Taking Heroin or Cocaine...any type of drug that is illegal and that you want to get a high off of.
What is the definition of Drug Misuse?
The Unintentional or inappropriate use of prescribed or over the counter types of drugs
What are several examples of Drug Misuse?
- Taking more than perscribed
- Using OTC or psychocactive drugs in excess without edical supervision
- Mixing drugs with alcohol or other types of drugs
- Using old medicines to self-treat new symptom of an illness
- Discontinuing prescribed drugs at will and/or against physician's orders
Name which drugs match these histories:
- Accepting and oblivious in the beginning, prohibited between 1920 and 1933, after WW2 height of popularity and acceptance
0 considered romantic and sexy after ww2
- unknown before 1920s, became a symbol of the 60s, associated with hippies
- discovery of negative sides in the 19th century led to abandonent, rose to popularity again in the 80s associated with glamour and wealth,because cheap and smokable in 1985 and involved new poorer populations in abuse circle
- Alcohol
- Nicotine
- Marajuana
- Cocaine
The Michigan Monitoring Study was conducted every year since...It revealed that drug use prevalence peaked in ..., had a steady decline until ..., and then had a reversal upward until..., and a slight decline since then. In 2003 ...% reported use of an illicit drug over the previous year (compared to 54% in 1979)
In the Michigan Monitoring Study, which drug was the most popular over the previous 12 Months? Which was the most popular over the previous 30 days?
Marajuana (35%) was most popular over 12 months...Alcohol was most popular over 30 days (48%)
What are characteristics of Schedule 1 Drugs? What are the Characteristics of Schedule 2 drugs?
Schedule 1: have high abuse potential, have no current approval for medicinal uses and cannot be prescribed.
Schedule 2: have high-abuse potential, are approved for medicinal uses, can be prescribed (no prescription renewals)
What are Schedule 3 Drugs? What are Schedule 4 Drugs? What are Schedule 5 Drugs?
Schedule 3: have some potential for abuse, medical use may lead to low-to-oderate physical or high psychological dependence, can be prescribed up to 5 renewals within 6 months
Schedule 4: have low potential for abuse, have accepted medical use, are freely prescribed
Schedule 5: have minimal potential for abuse, widespread medical use, minimal control for selling
What are the 4 strategies for Preventing Drug Abuse?
Supply Reduction
Demand Reduction
Harm Reduction Policy
What is Supply Reduction? Give an example.
- Using drug laws to control the manufacturing and distribution of classified drugs: Having a law against the sales of marajuana
What is Demand Reduction? Give an example?
Aims to reduce the actual demand for drugs by working mainly with youth and teaching the to resist drugs: Having programs after school for children to go to
What is Zero-Tolerance?
The objective is to totally eliminate illicit drug-taking behavior.
What is the Harm Reduction Policy?
The objective is to minimize the medical, psychological, and social costs associated with drug-taking behavior.
What are the three types of Drug Violence? Describe each one.
Pharmacological - acts of violence committed while under the influence of a particular drug: Alcoholic beating his wife
Economically Compulsive: acts of violence that are committed by the drug abuser to secure money to buy drugs - mugging someone to get drug money
Systemic: acts of violence committed by aggressive behaviors within a network of illicit drug trafficking and distribution - killing someone because they didn't deliver the goods
Concerning Drugs, what is the primary responsibility of the FDA?
The FDA and Cosmetic act force require that all new drugs be registered with and approved by the FDA. They are required to
- ensure the rights and safety of human subjects during clinical testing
- evaluate the safety and efficacy of new treatments
- compare benefits and risks of new drugs and determine approval
What are the Dendrites?
Short branch structures that recieve and conduct info to cell bodies
What are Axons?
Long large fibers that NT travels down and ends in terminal button and conducts away from the cell body
What is the Synapse?
Special junction where cells of the NS signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells.
What are the Terminal Butons?
Exist at the ends of the branches that divide out from the axon. Recieve the message transferred from the axon, store them in their vesicles and are responsible for secreting these transmitter substances.
What are Neurotransmitters? What are they refered to as, and what is the difference between excitatory and inhibitory?
Chemical substances manufactured in the cell body that communicate information at the synapse.
Referred to as the first messenger molecule
Excitatory activate adjacent neurons and inhibitory reduce the activity of adjacent neurons.
What is Conduction? What is Transmission? These process begin how? What do these process result in (what ultimately occurs in order to get something to happen?)
C - the process of impulse movement along the axon.
T - the passage of the impulse across the synaptic space.
Porcess are started with stimulation of cell which is activated by hormones.
Activation results in a brief change in electrical potential from the cell's resting state (an action potential).
After an action potential is initiated, what happens?
The action potential is converted into a nerve impulse.
Neurotransmitters are transported down the axon for storage in tiny containers (vesicles)
The action potential stimulates the vesicles to migrate towards the cell membrane, fuse with it, and for a microsecond create a pore, discharging the neurotransmitter into the synapse.
At the nerve ending, what critical function do nerve impulses perform? What do Presynaptic Neurons do? Postsynaptic Neurons?
At the nerve ending, the nerve ipulse causes the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse. The Presynaptic Neuron releases the Neurotransmitter whereas the Postsynaptic Neuron recieves the Neurotransmitter.
What do Neurotransmitters do once released from the presynaptic Neuron?
They deliver stimulation across the synapse, bind to specific receptors, and are the primary means by which one nerve cell communicates and influences the functioning of other neurons.
What is a receptor? What is an agonist? What is an antagonist?
A receptor is a fairly large molecule that is present on the surface of or within a cell that furnishes the site where neurotransitters induce their normal biological effects.
An agonist is a drug that facilitates the action of the neurotransmitter
An antagonist is a drug that inhibits the normal physiological action of the neurotransmitter by blocking access to this transmitter to the binding site.
What type of effect does dopamine have? What are the CNS changes it causes? What drugs are abused because of it?
Inhibitory and Excitatory
Euphoria, agitation, paranoia
Amphetamines, cocaine
What is GABA? What type of effect does it have, what are the CNS changes it causes, What drugs are abused because of it?
Inhibitory, Sedation, relazation, drowsiness, depression
Alcohol, Benzodiazepines, and barbituates
What is Serotonin? What type of effect does it have, what CNS changes does it cause, and what are the drugs of abuse?
Serotonin is inhibitory, it causes sleep, relaxation, and sedation, and it is abused by LSD.
What is acetylcholine, what type of effect does it have, what CNS changes does it cause, and what drugs are abused by it?
It is excitatory and inhibitory, it creates mild euphoria, excitation, and insomnia, abused by nicotine and tobacco.
What are Endorphins? What type of effect do they have, what are the CNS changes they cause, and what types of drugs are abused by them?
Inhibitory, Cause mild euphoria, block pain, and slow respiration, are abused by Narcotics.
What is the definition of Pharacodynamics?
What is the definition for Pharacokinetics?
How a drug affects the body.
What occurs when you take the drug, bodies effect on the drug.
What are the 5 pharmokinetic factors>
1. Administration (where it goes in)
2. Absorbtion (where it affects the body)
3. Distribution (where it goes throughout the body)
4. Biotransformation (what the body is able to turn it into)
5. Excretion (how it leaves the body, how long that takes)
What are the various ways to administer drugs (and list examples of drugs for each)
Oral - everything
Rectal ...
Inhalation - Tobacco, Crack Cocaine, Spray Paint
Parenteral (Injection) - Insulin and Heroin
Mucous Membranes - LSD, Chaw - eye drops
Skin - Patches, Burn Ointment
What are the 4 various barriers that a drug has to pass to reach its site of action?
1. The Cell Membrane
2. The Capillaries Walls
3. The Blood Brain Barrier
4. Placental Barrier
What is Metabolism? And what are several routes for elimination of drugs in the body?
Biotransformation of a drug into metabolites: happens in the liver.
- Urination
- Saliva
- Sweat
- Breast Milk
- Exhalation
- Bile
What is a Drugs Half Life? Which drug has an exception to the Half Life Rule?
The length of tie it takes for a drug to be reduced to 50% of its equilibrilum level in the bloodstream. Each period the reaining 50% is eliminated. Half-life elimination is the general principle of drug elimination from the body.
Alcohol - a constant amount is metabolized per hour, regardless of the absolute amount of alcohol present in blood