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115 Cards in this Set

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What are the four key common concepts of attention?

Selectivity (spatial, auditory, timing)
Capacity
Expectation
Switching

What is capacity in terms of attention?

Amount of perceptual resources available for a given task (varies with task and individual)

What is selectivity in terms of attention?

attention is selective in terms of what gets processed and what does not

Give an example of overt attention

eye movement

give examples of covert attention

Move attention but not eyes

Auditory attention

Display attention to different properties of same object

What is early selection?

Select area for attention before any processing

What is late selection?

Selecting area for attention after processing

What is the cocktail party paradigm?

Even though we are ignoring other auditory inputs (eg ignoring ambient sound at a cocktail party), we still notice broad changes (eg. pitch change, language change) (just not semantic elements)

At a high perceptual load, where would the 'attentional bottleneck' lie and what effect would this have?

High attentional bottleneck (just below registration) --> less info getting through for perceptual analysis

At a low perceptual load, where would the 'attentional bottleneck' lie and what effect would this have?

Low attentional bottleneck (below perceptual analysis and semantic meaning) leading to more information getting through for higher processing.

What was the inattention paradigm?

Mack and Rock (1998)
What visual features can be processed without visual attention?

Varied length of horizontal lines, object flashes up on screen. Only gross changes go through attentional bottleneck (location > colour > number > shape)

What are the three key aspects of visual spatial attention?

- shifting attention


- spotlight


- zoom lens

What is the Posner cuing paradigm?

Consequences of attending to specific locations in space.
Participants respond to target flashing up on one side of screen. Valid cue = arrow pointing to correct side (80% of arrows). Invalid cue = arrow pointing wrong way. Neutral = no arrow.

Time benefit for valid cue, time cost for invalid
Attended area = increased cognitive processing

What are endogenous cues?

- VOLUNTARY
- attention must be voluntarily shifted from the central cue to the cued location

What are exogenous cues?

- INVOLUNTARY
- attention is drawn to the location of the cue, usually by flash or movement
- cannot be ignored

What are the three stages of shifting attention and what brain regions are they associated with?

- Disengagement (parietal lobe)


- Movement (superior colliculus)
- Engagement (thalamus)

What is the spotlight theory about visual spatial attention and what paradigm supports it?

- attention is like a spotlight, illuminating the object in its focus region
- supported by Posner cuing paradigm
- movement = 8ms/degree
- trajectory = illuminates region along its trajectory
- size = 1 degree
- unitary = spotlight cannot be divided in two

What is the zoom lens and what paradigm supports it?

- attention is like a zoom lens, but the wider the field the less detail there is


- supported by local/global tasks

What is distributed attention?

- visual processing happens simultaneously over the whole visual field --> loss of fine detail
- parallel processing


- visual 'pop out'

What is focused attention?

Visual processing performed as a series of 'attentional fixations' each covering a different area of the visual field.

Serial processing

What is inattentional blindness?

Being so focused on something that you are 'blind' to objects directly in front of you (e.g. pilot so focused on HUD instead of plane on tarmac)

What is change blindness?

Not being receptive to changes in a scene - parallel processing cannot pick up enough fine detail to discriminate subtle changes

What is the stroop effect?


An example of selective attention to properties. Conflicts between semantic identity and colour of word makes it difficult to name.

Shows we have little control over what we selectively attend to. Consistent with late selection.

What is the link between attention and neuronal firing rate?

Attention can modulate neuronal firing rate, but primarily only in higher order visual processing areas (eg V4) relative to lower order areas (V1)



What is 'voluntary spatial attention'

Greater activity in V1 leads to increased likelihood of distinguishing hard-to-see patterns. Attention increases the activity of the cortex (like a volume knob).

Explain spatial neglect

people with TBI (particularly parietal lobe damage- involved in disengagement) have trouble focusing attention to the contralateral side

Damage to which side of the brain results in worse spatial neglect?

Damage to the right parietal lobe results in worse spatial neglect because the RPL is involved in deploying attention to both the left and right sides, whereas the LPL is only partially involved in deploying attention to the right side.

Explain extinction in terms of spatial neglect.

Person unable to disengage attention from one side to process the other

What are the three basic components of emotion?

- physiological (ANS)
- expressive (face, voice, movement)


- cognitive (beliefs, appraisals).

What is the folk psychology emotion pathway?

Perceived event --> emotional experience --> physiological and behavioural changes

What is the James-Lange theory?

Perceived even --> physiological and behavioural changes --> emotional experience

What is the Cannon-Bard theory?

Perceived event goes to both physiological and behavioural changes and emotional experience but these two are SEPARATE

What did James believe?

physiological arousal causes emotion

What did Lange believe?

physiological arousal IS emotion

What is the facial feedback hypothesis?

Expressing a particular emotion puts us (to some extent) into the same emotional state

Strong = expression can cause inference of emotion
Weak = facial expression modulates emotion

What muscles are involved in a Duchenne smile?

Zygomaticus major and orbicularis oculi

What muscles are involved in a Duchenne frown?

Corruguator muscles

Positive emotions are linked (by EMG) in activity where?

cheeks

Negative emotions are linked (by EMG) in activity where?

Brow and forehead

What does the facial feedback hypothesis suggest and whose theory does this disagree with?

Physiological states/expressions/behaviour can to some extend modulate emotion --> Cannon-Bard theory does not account for this (physiological response and emotion separate)

Explain the thalamic/hypothalamic theory of emotion

Stimulus --> thalamus --> hypothalamus (evaluates information) --> projections to sympathetic nervous system AND cerebral cortex

Explain classical conditioning

Pairing a neutral/non-feared stimuli (CS) with a negative or positive (hard-wired) automatic response (US)

What is differential conditioning?

Having two conditioned stimuli, one paired with the US (CS+) and another not paired with the US (CS-)

What is the amygdala important for in terms of fear conditioning?

Fear acquisition. Important in conditioning to anticipation of threat but it is not necessarily the only region required for experiencing fear.

What is LeDoux's high road?

Thalamus --> cortex (info is evaluated) --> amygdala --> response

(slower, more measured response)

What is LeDoex's low road?

Thalamus --> amygdala --> response

(sympathetic, instinctive, quick)

What is extinction in terms of fear learning?

Presenting the CS+ alone (without US) reduces fear-related behaviour

What is spontaneous recovery?

Reemergence of fear after extinction

What is renewal?

emergence of fear in a different context

What is reinstallment?

Emergence of fear in response to US alone

What is rapid reacquisition?

Reacquisition of fear is faster than learning of fear

Fear at the neural level depends on...

1) Synaptic weight (pre/postsynaptic neurons having highly correlated output --> connection strength)

2) plasticity: changing the wiring between neurons

What did Gibson and Walk (1960) investigate?

Innate fear

Toddlers didn't walk over 'visual cliff'. Infants tend to avoid drops with locomotor experience not automatically. May be due to avoidance rather than fear.

Experience and learning more important than innate factors in shaping response

What did Seligman and Maier (1967) investigate?

learned helplessness in dogs. Dogs who were conditioned to believe they always received a shock didn't jump to avoid one when they could have.

Past learning directly influences how a situation is perceived and how this leads to certain emotions

Stable vs unstable attributions are linked to what kind of helplessness?

Chronic vs acute

Internal vs external attributions are linked to what kind of helplessness?

Low self esteem vs normal self esteem

Global vs specific attributions are linked to what kind of helplessness?

broad vs narrow

What is the two-factor theory of emotion?

Event --> physiological changes --> cognitive labels which leads to both emotional experience AND behaviour

What is the link between attributions and emotion?

Attributions can determine what emotions are formed (e.g. noticed physiological changes can be misattributed to the wrong emotion)

What is the near reflex?

Linking together convergence and accommodation - as eyes converge and diverge, muscles controlling the shape of the lens contract and relax automatically

When the eyes are focused on an object far away, will this be an example of convergence or divergence?

Divergence (smaller angle)

A larger angle between the fixation lines of the two eyes is an example of convergence or divergence?

Convergence

What is binocular disparity?

Difference in image location of an object seen by the left and right eye, used to extract depth information.

What is the horoptor?

The locus of points in space with the same angles of fixation lines/points in space that yield single vision by stimulating the same area of both retinas.

Explain binocular stimulation of receptive fields

Identical regions of the retina are connected to binocular neurons in the cortex that signal zero depth.

Similar regions of the retina are connected to binocular neurons in the cortex that signal depth

What is Panum's fusional area?

Horizontal plane around the theoretical horoptor, where any point appears single.

One point on the retina may yield single vision with a circular REGION AROUND THE IDENTICAL POINT on the other retina

What does the wavelength of light determine?

Colour

What does the intensity of light determine?

Brightness

What is monochromatic light?

One wavelength

What is polychromatic light?

Many wavelengths

What is hue?

The colour of the light itself

What is the saturation?

The purity or vividness of the colour

What is the brightness of a colour?

The perceived intensity of the coloured light

What are the three types of cones?

Short wavelength (blue)

Medium wavelength (green)

Long wavelength (red)

What can the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory account for?

colour mixing of light




basic varieties of colour deficiencies




metamers

What is a metamer?

physically distinct stimulations that we perceive as one (e.g. mixing 530nm and 620nm light stimulates the same receptors (S,M,L) to the same extent as one 580nm wavelength).

What is the Herring opponent process theory?

Proposal that red/green, yellow/blue and white/black are paired in an antagonistic relationship in colour perception.

What is the dual process theory?

--> Young-Helmholtz theory is correct at the RECEPTOR level

--> Herring opponent process theory is correct at the RECEPTIVE FIELD LEVEL

Explain some of the symptoms of Pick's disease

Frontotemporal atrophy with 'knife like' thinning of gyri

Ventricular dilation

Swollen brain cells (pick's cells) with Tau protein inclusions

What are some of the symptoms of Pick's disease?

Inappropriate jocularity
Echolalia and echopraxia
Utilisation behaviours
Primitive reflexes still there

What are some of the symptoms associated with orbitofrontal dysfunction?

aggressiveness


social inappropriateness


apathy
decreased inhibition

What are the speech and language effects of Pick's disease?

non-fluent verbal output
poor naming


speech and language more severe changes than memory

What are some of the movement disorders associated with Pick's disease?

Akinesia (impaired voluntary movement), plastic rigidity, paratonia (resistance to passive movement)

What did Lima and Moniz do?

Suggested that lobotomy can reduce violent behaviour in monkeys

What did Freeman do?

Invented the transorbital lobotomy

What are the outcomes of lobotomy?

- Patients become stimulus bound
- weight gain/sexual promiscuity
- could not form/sustain goals
- distracted by circumstances
- very passive (vulnerability)

Explain the story or W.R.

"The man who lost his ego"
- Law graduate who suddenly became very demotivated, apathetic and uninterested. Found a large astrocytoma in LPFC, callosal fibres and into RPFC (after seizure in college).
- Lack of concern when told he had ~1 year to live

What are gliomas?

Fast growing, most common type (40-50%) of brain tumour



Arises from any glial cell (astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas)

What are some of the functions of the LPFC?

Working memory
Stimulus driven behaviour (utilisation)
Concept formation
Temporal organisation/chronogenesis
Goal-oriented behaviour

What are the three key areas of conceptualisation relating to the LPFC?

- Concept formation
- Concept shifting
- Concept preservation

What is perseveration?

When a person (commonly as a side effect of LPFC damage) always persists with the same concept and isn't able to shift/adapt

What is the relationship between LPFC and working memory?

much greater LPFC activiation during spatial working memory tasks

What did Konishi et al (1998) suggest?

Using a modified Wisconsin card sorting task, Konishi et al (1998) suggested that the role of the LPFC is to inhibit dimensions that are not relevant, and to filter through possible alternatives.

i.e. increased complexity of task = increased dimensions to inhibit = increased LPFC activity

What is the relationship between LPFC and memory?

Organisation and segregation of memory representations. Chronogenesis.

How is LPFC damage worse different to temporal damage?

Frontal damage: better recognition/recall, worse recency (arrange events in order)

Temporal damage: worse recognition/recall, better recency

Where does the anterior cingulate cortex receive input from?

Amygdala, thalamus, striatum, brain stem

Explain the three key connections to and from the anterior cingulate cortex

TO: motor cortex and spinal cord (willed action)

FROM: thalamus & brainstem nuclei (importance of arousal state for ACC activation)

TO AND FROM: LPFC (cognition, monitoring presence of conflict)

What is the orbitofrontal cortex made up of?

Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

Lateral-orbital prefrontal cortex

What are some of the functions of the orbitofrontal cortex?

Social and emotional judgement and decision making --> choosing how to act by integrating info about goals, values and the current social situation

Who was "Elliot"?

Tumour bilaterally in orbitofrontal cortex
Lack of concern for social rules, poor social awareness
No 'schedule'

How is orbitofrontal damage related to reward/punishment behaviour?

OFC damage results in decreased SCRs in anticipation, reward and punishment conditions.

People dont care if they get punished, stealing, violent behaviour etc (acquired sociopathy)

What is the case of J.S.?

- 56 year old man, premorbidly quiet and withdrawn
- Frontal trauma including OFC
- poor recognition, attribution and automatic response to emotions
- poor identification of social behaviour violations
- poor theory of mind

What are some key points from Mallan and colleagues?

- Cognition influences our affective reaction to a stimulus


- Fear to racial outgroup faces is not irrational
- Resistance to extinction in racial out group no instruction group

What did Mallan and colleages measure?

- Blink magnitude

- Skin conductance before/after face

What were the independent variables in Mallan and colleagues?

race of CS

instruction or no instruction (no more shocks)

Which group showed resistance to extinction in Mallan and colleagues?

Chinese no-instruction group

What are some explanations posed by Mallan and colleagues

- reflects evolutionary fear-of-the-unknown

- stereotype activation

What are the two kinds of prosopagnosia?

Acquired (damage to occipitotemporal cortex)

Developmental (up to 2.5% of people)

Explain the results of the famous faces test

Family named significantly fewer faces than controls (depends on pop culture knowledge)

Explain the cambridge face memory test

Given novel target faces to learn and presented against distractor faces

requires MEMORY

family members were significantly worse than control

Explain the Perception of Facial Similarity Cambridge FacePerception Test

No memory component, had to rate morphed faces on similarity to target faces

Facial identity impairment for family not related to memory

Explain the Facial emotion recognition Test , Mindin the Eyes Test

Determine emotion from pictures of eyes

Thefamily displays normal processing of facial emotions

Explain the within category object recognition test

family has deficits in within-categoryidentification of non-face objects, not just for faces although it seems to alesser extent This family seems to have impairment onnon-face objects as well

Explain the global local task

Both control and family were similar,no evidence of global processing deficits for family

Explain the mirror test

In the no mirror condition: there Isthe control condition, no systematic pattern of errors related to the mirrorhand position In the mirror condition: systematicerrors: the more the real and mirror locations differs, the greater the error.This pattern of errors will be consistent with the brain representing the handsomewhere between the real and mirror-signalled locations