The Spatial Sentence Theory

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Spatial cueing .... According to the spotlight theory, spatial cues influences how one views objects. The "spotlight" helps capture specific features and bring them to heightened attention. This theory was coined by Giovich and Savitsky (1999). Both researchers analyzed how the spotlight effect influenced social relationships. The found that the spotlight theory causes individual's to misjudge other's behaviors. According to a study conducted by Richards (2005), infant's attention was analyzed with the use of a spatial cue procedure. Researchers were looking at infant's ability to habituate their attention to different areas without the use of eye movements. It was found that the shift of attention to a cued location did successfully occur …show more content…
Researchers compared the spotlight theory to a similar theory called zoom lens theory. This theory states how an individual's attentional resources begin very broad then become narrow when a visual target is presented. Once an individual's attention is shifted to a specific target, the spotlight theory comes to play - bringing heightened attention to the features and components. Researchers concluded that response time had no effect, but instead, attention was directed by the spotlight theory more than the zoom lens theory. Spatial cueing also plays an important role in selective attention. According to Duncan (1984), detection of a stimulus is greatly influenced by individual's mental spotlight. With the use of edge detection and the spotlight theory, individual's can orient their attentional "spotlight" before a stimulus is presented. As a result, when a stimulus is presented, the individual can then locate, orient, and categorize it very rapidly. Discrimination-based, space-based, and object-based theories all influence an individual's attention during spatial cueing. In this particular experiment, spatial cueing is analyzed with the use of directed looking. The goal of this experiment is to determine which group has the quickest response time: valid, invalid, or neutral. It is hypothesized that the valid group will yield the quickest, most accurate …show more content…
For the valid trial, a mean of 384.50 and standard deviation of 118.44 was recorded. Neutral trial had a mean of 417.37 and a standard deviation of 133.56. Lastly, the invalid trial had a mean of 441.69 and a standard deviation of 182.71. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the three groups. Three paired t-tests were conducted. The first t-test, between the invalid and valid condition resulted with a significant difference [t(102)=4.2706, p<0.001]. A mean difference of 57.1927 was recorded, along with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 30.6295 to 83.7558. The second t-test, between the neutral and invalid conditions was significant [t(102)=2.1352, p=0.03514]. This indicates that the means do not equal zero. A mean of differences was found to be 24.3216, with a 95 percent confidence interval from 1.7277 to 46.9155. The third t-test conducted was between the valid and neutral conditions, which was found significant [t(102)=4.9969, p<0.001]. A mean difference of 32.8711 was recorded, along with a 95 percent confidence interval between 19.8232 to

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