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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Focus on how a specific stimulus produces a specific response (behaviour).

(Study of behavior as a function of environmental influences)

John Watson & B.F Skinner


Repeated exposure to stimulus decreases responsiveness to stimulus


Exposure to stimulus increases responsiveness to stimulus.

Classical Conditioning

Neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits and unconditioned response.

After repetition the NS can elicit the response w/o the US, and becomes a conditioned stimulus & response becomes a conditioned response.

E.g., Pavlov's dogs.

Types of Classical Conditioning

The order in which the US and NS are presented can be varied.




Biological Preparedness

-food aversion due to smell / tase of dangerous foods

Stimulus generalisation

CR tends to be elicited by neutral stimuli that are similar but not identical to CS

Stimulus discrimination

CR tends to be elicited only by stimuli that are very simular or identical to CS


CR becomes eliminated through repeated presentations of the CS w/o presence of US

Spontaneous recovery

CS once again elicits CR after extinction has occurred.

Because CR is reestablished rapidly as soon as it's paired with the US

Drug conditioning

US causes compensatory response as it's paired with other cues. Cues can then elicit the compensatory response


Study of how psychology related to event a involving nervous and immune systems

Law of Effect

If response produces a satisfying effect it is likely to occur again.

E.g., Thorndike's cats

Operant conditioning

Focus on behaviors that have some effect (operate) on the environment.

B.F. Skinner

- punishment/reinforcement, negative/positive

Three term contingency (ABC)

Antecedent - Behaviour - Consequence

ABC - Antecedent

Conditions that are in place when operant behaviour occurs.

Stimuli that are present when behaviour is reinforced/punished = discriminative stimulus

ABC - Behaviour

Interested in function, not form.

What effect does the behaviour have on the environment.

ABC - Consequence

Reinforcer or publisher

Can be positive or negative

Must describe effect on behaviour (inc or dec likelihood of it occurring again)

Extinction burst

Temporary increase in the frequency, duration, or intensity oof the target response, before extinction happens

Schedules of reinforcement

Continuous - response is reinforced every time it occurs

Intermittent - response is reinforced intermittently

Schedules of reinforcement - Intermittent

-variable ratio

-fixed ratio

-variable interval

-fixed interval

Cognitive psychology, cognition

Study of cognitive processes . Cognition=mental processes of perceiving, remembering, thinking, discussing, and understanding those processes

3 assumptions of modern cognitive psych.

1. Mental processes can be studied scientifically

2. Humans are intentional, active information processors

3. Mental processes take time and have resource and structural limitations


Reinforcing behaviour progressively closer to target behaviour through successive approximations.


Not making the absolute best decisions, settling for those that are satisfactory

Herbert Simon won Nobel prize

Iconic memory

Temporary visual storage that keeps information for about 250msec before it begins to decay

Echoic memory

Auditory sensory memory


Transfers information into conscious awareness.

Can be selective or automatic


Automatic task interferes with your ability to per from the non automatic task, e.g. stroop effect

Short term memory

Limited capacity of conscious and voluntary control

Elaborative rehearsal

Active process to change information so it can be remembered, e.g. mnemonics (i before e except after c)

Elaboration & Effort


The more elaborate or more effort spent encoding information, the better the memory.

Unusual or distinctive items are better remembered.


Humans impose their own organisation when to structure is present.

Long term memory

Very organised large capacity memory system

Procedural memory

Implicit knowledge, requires no awareness e.g. riding a bicycle

Damage to hippocampus

Results in retrograde amnesia and inability to form new declarative memories (anterograde amnesia)

Heuristics and biases

People take shortcuts in making decisions based on their past experiences

Explicit memory

A memory about an emotion (remembering how you felt in the past)

Implicit memory

An emotional memory of an event, memory elicits emotional response.


Emotion processing centre of the brain. Triggers an emotional reaction rapidly.

Galvanic skin response

Prominent during emotional arousal, increased electrical conductivity of skin occurring when sweat glands increase their activity.

Positive Psych - 6 Core Virtues

Wisdom/knowledge, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, transcendence.

James-Lange Theory

We consciously experience emotion when we perceive our own autonomic arousal.

Cannon-Bard Theory

We simultaneously feel emotion and experience autonomic arousal.

Scachter two factor theory

Experience of emotion depends on:

1. Autonomic arousal

2. Cognitive interpretation of that arousal (our appraisal of stimulus)

Drive theories

Disruptions to homeostasis produce drives that motivate us to reduce this tension.

Expectancy-Value theory

Goal directed behaviour is determined by both

- how strongly a person expects that behaviour to lead to a goal

- the value of that goal for the person

Key feature of mental disorder

The extent to which it is maladaptive

Bio-psycho-social perspective

Assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psyhcoligical factors combine to produce psychological disorders.


Standard classification system for mental disorders.