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130 Cards in this Set

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The process through which children's biases to behave in accord with their gender identity is strengthened by their greater attention to and involvement with entities and activities deemed appropriate to their gender

Gender Self-Socialization

Awareness of one's own gender

Gender Identity

Awareness that gender is stable over time

Gender Stability

The realization that gender is invariant despite superficial changes in a person's appearance or behavior

Gender Constancy

Organized mental representations (concepts, beliefs, memories) about gender, including gender stereotypes

Gender Schemas

Tendency to evaluate individuals and characteristics of the ingroup as superior to those of the outgroup

Ingroup Bias

Process whereby individuals are socialized to conform to the group's norms, demonstrating the characteristics that define the group

Ingroup Assimilation

Learning about gender through direct teaching


Learning about gender through experiencing the reactions one's behavior evokes in others

Enactive Experience

The economic resources offered by the macrosystem in Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, and people's understanding of those resources

Opportunity Structure

Children's tendency to associate with same-gender peers and avoid other-gender peers

Gender Segregation

Heightened concerns with adhering to traditional gender roles

Gender Role Intensification

Advances in cognitive development that can allow adolescents (more often girls than boys) to transcend traditional conventions and pursue a more flexible range of interests

Gender Role Flexibility

The magnitude of similarity and difference between groups

Effect Size

A statistical technique used to summarize the average effect size across studies

Meta Analysis

The developmental period marked by the ability to reproduce and other dramatic bodily changes


The onset of menstruation


The onset of male's capacity for ejaculation


An individual's perception of, and feelings about, his or her own body

Body Image

The period, prior to emergence of visible signs of puberty, during which the adrenal glands mature, providing a major source of sex steroids. This period correlates with the onset of sexual attraction


Speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular


Conversations between kids that are non-sequiturs. They take turns but have egocentric chats

Collective Monologues

Descriptions of past events in the form of a story


A set of highly abstract, unconscious rules that are common to all languages

Universal Grammar

Proposes that the human brain contains an innate, self-contained language module that is separate from other aspects of cognitive functioning

Modularity Hypothesis

Everything about language is influenced by its communicative function

Interactionist View

A type of information-processing theory that emphasizes the simultaneous activity of numerous interconnected processing units


The idea that a symbolic artifact must be represented mentally in two ways at the same time - both as a real object and a symbol for something else

Dual Representation

Based on the view that intelligence is the ability to achieve success in life

Sternberg's Theory of Successful Intelligence

Ability to identify component sounds within words

Phonemic Awareness

The ability to translate letters into sounds and blend the sounds into words

Phonological Recoding Skills

Proceeding directly from the visual form of a word to its meaning

Visually Based Retrieval

Choosing between alternate processes for solving problems by choosing the fastest approach

Strategy-Choice Process

Inability to read well despite normal intelligence


Ability to discriminate and remember sounds within words

Phonological Processing

Process used to form a representation of a situation or series of events

Mental Model

The process of keeping track of one's understanding of a verbal description or text

Comprehension Monitoring

The processing of basic information from the external world by the sensory receptors and brain


The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information about the objects, events, and spacial layout of the world around us


A commonsense level of understanding of other people and oneself

Naive Psychology

A basic understand of how the mind works and hot it influences behavior

Theory of Mind

Tasks that test a child's understanding that other people will act in accord with their own beliefs even when the child knows those beliefs are incorrect

False Belief Problems

A hypothesized brain mechanism devoted to understanding other human beings

Theory of Mind Module (TOMM)

Make-Believe activities in which children create new symbolic relations

Pretend Play

A form of pretense in which an object is used as something other than itself

Object Substitution

The idea that children play a very active role in their own socialization through their activity preferences, friendship choices, and so on


Being aware of the perspective of another person, thereby better understanding their behavior, feelings, and thoughts

Role Taking

A social group's informal norms about when, where, and how much one should show emotions and when and there one should mask their emotions

Display Rules

The process of comparing aspects of one's own psychological, behavioral, or physical functioning to that of others in order to evaluate oneself

Social Comparison

A form of adolescent egocentrism that involves beliefs in the uniqueness of one's own feelings and thoughts

Personal Fable

The belief, stemming from adolescent egocentrism, that everyone else is focused on the adolescent's appearance and behavior

Imaginary Audience

Erikson's psychosocial stage of development that occurs during adolescence. During this stage, the adolescent or young adult either develops an identity or develops an incomplete or incoherent sense of self.

Identity Versus Identity Confusion

An integration of various aspects of the self into a coherent whole that is stable over time and across events

Identity Achievement

An incomplete or incoherent sense of self that may cause the adolescent to feel lost, isolated, and depressed

Identity Confusion

A person's preference in regards to males or females as objects of erotic feelings

Sexual Orientation

Young people who experience same sex attractions and for whom the question of personal sexual identity is often confusing and painful

Sexual Minority Youth

A set of abilities that contribute to competence in the social and emotional domains

Emotional Intelligence

Characterized by physiological responses, subjective feelings, cognitions related to those feelings, and the desire to take action


Emotions are viewed as innate and discrete from one another very early in life, and each emotion is believed to be packaged with a specific and distinctive set of bodily and facial reactions

Discrete Emotions Theory

Argues that the basic function of emotions is to promote action toward achieving a goal. Emotions are not discrete from one another and vary based on social environment

Functionalist Approach

Smiles directed at people (Begin at 6-7 weeks old)

Social Smiles

Feelings of distress that children, especially infants and toddlers, experience when they are separated, or expect to be separated, from individuals to whom they are emotionally attached

Separation Anxiety

Emotions that relate to our sense of self and our consciousness of other's reaction to us

Self-Conscious Emotions

The process of initiating, inhibiting, or modulating internal feeling states and related physiological processes, cognitions, and behaviors

Emotional Self-Regulation

The ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while simultaneously maintaining positive relationships with others

Social Competence

Differences in various aspects of children's emotional reactivity that emerge early in life


The tendency to be high in fearful distress and restrained when dealing with novel or stressful situations

Behavioral Inhibitions

The degree to which an infant's temperament is compatible with the demands and expectations of his/her social environment

Goodness of fit

The pattern of behaviors and emotions propensities, beliefs, and interests, and intellectual capacities that characterize an individual (and ad a constitutional basis) but is shaped by interactions with the social and physical world


The process through which children acquire the values, standards, skills, knowledge, and behaviors that are regarded as appropriate for their present and future role in their culture


The 1st stage in Freud's Theory, occurring in the first year, in which the primary sense of satisfaction and pleasure is oral activity

Oral Stage

The earliest and most primitive personality structure. It is unconscious and acts with the goals of seeking pleasure


The second personality structure to develop. It is the rational, logical, problem solving component of personality


The third personality structure, consisting of internalized moral standards

Super Ego

The 2nd stage in Freud's Theory, from 1-3 years, where the primary source of pleasure comes from defecations

Anal Stage

The 3rd stage in Freud's Theory, in which sexual pleasure is focused on the genitalia

Phallic Stage

The process of adopting as one's own the attributes, beliefs, and standards of another person


The conflict experienced by boys in the phallic stage because of their sexual desire for their mother and fear of retaliation from their father

Oedipus Complex

Banishing dangerous feelings to the unconscious


Conflict experienced by girls in the phallic stage who develop unacceptable romantic feelings for their father and see their mother as a rival

Electra Complex

Freud's 4th stage, from 6 to 12, in which sexual energy gets channeled into socially acceptable activities

Latency Period

Freud's 5th and final stage, in which sexual intercourse becomes a major goal.

Genital Stage

A form of therapy based on classical conditioning. Positive responses are gradually conditioned to stimuli that initially elicited a highly negative response

Systematic Desensitization

Inconsistent response to the behavior of another person

Intermittent Reinforcement

Therapy based on principles of operant conditioning in which reinforcement contingencies are changed to encourage more adaptive behavior

Behavior Modification

Observing someone else receive a reward or punishment

Vicarious Reinforcement

Child-environment influences operate in both directions - children are affected by aspects of their environment, but they also influence their environment.

Reciprocal Determinism

The study of behavior within an evolutionary context


Newborn birds and mammals of some species become attached to their mother at first sight


Stresses the evolutionary basis of many aspects of parental behavior, including the investment parents make in their offspring

Parental Investment Theory

In the bioecological model, the immediate environment that an individual personally experiences


Connections across microsystems


Environmental settings that indirectly affect the child


The larger cultural and social context within which other systems are embedded


Historical changes that influence other sytems


Intentional abuse or neglect that endangers the well being of a minor

Child Maltreatment

An emotional bond with a specific person that is enduring across space and time


Posits that children are biologically predisposed to develop attachments with caregivers to increase their chance of survival

Attachment Theory

The presence of a caregiver provides a sense of security that makes it possible for children to explore

Secure Base

A mental representation of the self, attachment figures, and relationships in general

Internal Working Model of Attachment

Procedure to assess attachment types

Strange Situations

Working models of attachment in adulthood that are believed to be based on adult's perceptions of their own childhood experiences, especially relationship with parents, and perceptions of the influence of these experiences on them as an adult.

Adult Attachment Models

Important factor contributing to security of infants attachment. Responsive caregiving and play & engagement

Parental Sensitivity

A conceptual system made up of one's thoughts and attitudes about oneself


The process of comparing aspects of one's own physiological, behavioral, or physical functioning to that of others in order to evaluate oneself

Social Comparison

Parents and children are mutually affect by each other's characteristics and behaviors

Bidirectionality of Parent-Child Interactions

A measurement that reflects how well liked children are by their peers

Sociometric Status

A category of sociometric status that refers to children who are well like by many peers and disliked by few.

Popular Peer Status

Aggression that involves exclusion from a social group

Relational Aggression

A category of sociometric status that refers to children who are disliked by many peers and liked by few

Rejected Peer Status

Rejected children who are especially prone to physical aggression, disruptive behavior, delinquency, and negative behavior.

Aggressive Rejected Children

Rejected children who are socially withdrawn, wary, and timid

Withdrawn Rejected Children

Voluntary behavior intended to benefit another (helping, sharing, consoling)

Prosocial Behavior

Decisions that pertain to issues of right and wrong

Moral Judgments

Decisions that pertain to customs or regulations intended to secure social coordination and social organization

Social Conventional Judgments

Decisions in which individual preferences are the main consideration

Personal Judgments

An internal regulatory mechanism that increases the individual's ability to conform to standards of conduct accepted in his/her culture


Helping others out of sympathy/empathy or acting consistent to conscience and moral principles

Altruistic Motives

Behavior aimed at harming others


Aggression motivated by desire to obtain a goal

Instrumental Aggression

Disorder characterized by age inappropriate behavior and angry, defiant, or irritable behavior

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

Involves sever antisocial and aggression behaviors that inflict pain on other or involve destruction of property or denial of the rights of others

Conduct Disorder (CD)

Emotionally driven, antagonistic aggression sparked by one's perception that other people's motives are hostile

Reactive Aggression

Unemotional aggression aimed at fulfilling a need or desire

Proactive Aggression

The tendency to take action on behalf of the self through competitive, independent, or aggressive behaviors


The tendency to affirm connection with others through being emotionally open, empathetic, or cooperative


A blend of assertion and affiliation. Associated with gender-role flexibility. More common in girls


Hormones that occur at higher levels in males and affect physical development and functioning from the prenatal period onward


A condition in which the adrenal glands produce high levels of hormones with androgen-like effects

Congenital Hormonal Influences

The potential result of certain fluctuations in sex-linked hormone levels affecting the contemporaneous activation of certain brain and behavioral responses

Activational Hormonal Influences