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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define social psychology
The scientific study
of how individuals
think, feel, and behave
in a (perceived) social context
Behavior "formula"
B = f(P, E)

behavior is a function of the person and the environment
Social Perceptions
How we look at, interpret, judge, and predict social situations -- could possibly have an agenda
Making inferences
Try to figure out:
1. social position (gender, race, etc.)
2. individual differences (traits, attitudes, emotions)
Raw "data" of social perception
People, situations, behavior
After observing raw data, we categorize information
Stereotypes (people), scripts (situations), attitudes (social objects), self-perception
After observing raw data, we categorize information
Stereotypes (people), scripts (situations), attitudes (social objects), self-perception
Where do cues come from?
Biological aspects (eg, cute response) and learned from birth via various inputs
Correspondent inference theory
assumption that a person will act in a certain way because of a trait they have -- is the cue we perceive of a person a product of the person or of the environment?
-Questions: is it freely chosen? expectedness? intended effects/consequences?
Social cues
Inference gathered from three types of behavior: verbal, physical, non-verbal
Non-verbal behavior includes:
(4 aspects)
Appearance
Face: expressions (natural or manipulated), eyes
Body: posture, gesture, gait, space)
Voice: tempo, volume, pitch, accent
Implicit personality theory
When a cue/inference arises, it brings up more inferences because they are connected in a network
Schema
Mental frameworks of a person that develop as you continue to meet them and learn things about them; the more complex, the easier it is to talk to them
How to develop schemas
Cues --> inferences --> judgments --> categorize into schemas
Prototype
Visual image related to a schema, allows recognition
Benefits of schemas
Fast, efficient system that allows us to remember things more clearly
Situational schemas
Following appropriate script, involve a certain time element
Disadvantages of schemas
-Once the schema label is placed on something, it is difficult to get past it, making it deceptive
-We are blinded by schemas, we play favorites
-We have our own personal favorite schemas which we use more frequently; used to fill in gaps about something
Priming
When a schema has been used recently, it is more likely it will be used again shortly after
Judgment
Schema using information with values (positive or negative) -- WAM and primacy
Weighted average model
Some traits are weighted more than others; we don't add characteristic values, we average them
Primacy
First impressions count, most weighted
Stereotypes
Group schemas -- can be positive, negative, or neutral (not judgments if neutral)
Units of stereotyping
-Proximity/spatial grouping
-Similarity
-Homogeneity (ignore minor variations)
-Implied contrast: there must be a contrasting group
Diagnostic Ratio
Higher percentage of a type of people in a specific group than in the general population
Illusory correlation
Distinctive behavior creates a distinctive schema of the group, even if it is undeserved -- tendency to link variables that are only slightly or not at all related
Problems with stereotypes
Mislabeling:
-Prototype
-Representative fallacy = incorrect schema
Impossible to erase
Bogus pipeline
False lie-detector test -- Implicit Association Test (IAT) tries to eliminate bogus pipeline
Cognitive overload
So many different objects within the group that it is impossible to individualize without "slowing down"
Self-schemas
Require you to be self-aware, developed over a long period of time -- characteristics: self-perception, reflective appraisal
Self-perception
Observing self in the same way that others do
Reflective Appraisal
Social perspective of ourselves based on what others tell us about ourselves -- MUM effect occurs when we get older, we are told less often about mistakes/flaws
Distinctiveness
When others react to a distinctive characteristic/behavior, it is put back into self schema
Self-reference effect
Anything relevant to the self is more likely to be remembered and remembered correctly than things unrelated to the self
False consensus effect
You are your default under uncertainty -- fill in the gaps with ideas of ourselves
Self-organization
-Material self: anything material about you that changes over time (body and possessions)
-Social self (interpersonal, collective, social)
-Personality characteristics (abstract; traits, behaviors)
Self-esteem
Judgment of the self, must be thinking of self reflectively (only about 8% of the time) -- desire to make actual self reach ideal self
Ideal self
-positive (on your best day)
-negative (on your worst day)
-internal (personal standard)
-external (standard in comparison to others)
Self-consciousness scale
Internal and external self-esteem; public vs. private self-conscious
Internal standard
Actual standard
External standard
-Sociometer
-Passive
-Active
Self-fulfilling prophecy
1. Perceiver has expectations of a target person
2. Perceiver then behaves in a manner consistent with those expectations
3. Target unwittingly adjusts behavior according to perceiver's actions
Motivations
Affects self-esteem process
-Self-enhancement
-Verification
-Terror management theory
-Basking in reflected glory
Self-enhancement
Manipulate something to make self look better -- want to think good things about yourself
Verification
Knowledge of who you are, desire to have it confirmed -- want people to see you as you see yourself
Terror management theory
Avoiding thoughts of fear of death; avoidable with high self-esteem
External standard (sociometer)
"What I think other people think of me" -- self-esteem
External standard (passive)
Others are the standard, vs. my actual
External standard (active)
Make a selection of who to be compared to; social comparison theory
Self-esteem Maintenance Theory
Be careful with finding people too close to you, could become social comparison (relevance and closeness)
Downward Social Comparison
Picking a group worse off than you to feel better about yourself (self-enhancement)
Upward Social Comparison
Useful in improving performance, holding self to higher standard
High self-esteem (narcissists)
Higher on aggression, prejudice
Low self-esteem
More accurate social perceiver, predicting who does/doesn't like them and outcome of events
Adjust standard
Finding a balance point in terms of social comparisons; not the absolute best, not the very worst -- in-group standard
Self-monitoring
Watching people outside, using that as a standard to match other personalities to make others happy -- not very stable, lack of consistency across situations -- could be smart depending on situation
Stereotype threat
Negative stereotyping that has an impact on everyone in that group
Self-awareness affects _____ and _____
self-esteem; performance
Attribtuion
Used to answer why something occurred, especially something unusual
-Internal
-External
-Stable (consistent)
-Unstable
Effect of self-concept on behavior
-cybernetic/thermostat/TOTE model = using standard as the goal
-self-concept = total sum of beliefs about self
-discrepancy between standard and actual leads to improvement
TOTE
Test, operate, test, exit; if unable to exit, we repeat the process
Fundamental Attribution Error
Not really en error, a tendency to go for internal causes for following reasons:
-perceptual
-informational
-motivational
-cultural
Hedonic relevance
The more I am affected, the more likely I am to go for internal
Self-attribution
Much more difficult:
-perceptual (tend to use external)
-informational (external)
-motivational
Self-serving attributions
If something good happens to me, it was because of me; if something bad happens, someone/something else caused it
Actor-observer problem
??
Motivational self-serving attribution
Making excuses -- an external attribution, often uncontrollable and unstable
Self-handicapping
Engaging in something beforehand to use as an excuse later
Kelly Covariation Model
-Consistency: over time, how often does person act like this?
-Consensus: what are other people doing?
-Distinctiveness: over situation
Discounting
-Internal
-External: explain why person did something
Augmenting
-Internal: it should be done
-External: it should not be done
Intentionality
Why did someone do something, but more importantly what purpose did they have