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50 Cards in this Set

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Selena keeps thinking that she "sees" someone following her, but there is really no one there. This is an example of :
A. a hallucination
B. an illusion.
C. a figure-ground.
D. the Müller-Lyer illusion.
A
A general conclusion that one might draw from the relationship between Zulu experiences and their perception of the Müller-Lyer illusion is that

A. past experience and perceptual habits play a role in determining human perception.
B. some principles of perception are universal.
C. people can't trust their own senses because they can never provide completely reliable knowledge.
D. perception has a more powerful effect on experience than experience on perception.
A
After a lifetime of blindness, newly sighted people must learn to:
A. identify objects.
B. judge sizes.
C. judge distances.
D. do all of these.
D
Lakeshia is performing for a talent show by "reading" the thoughts of a 'volunteer' from the audience. Lakeshia is showcasing the purported ability of
A. telepathy.
B. precognition.
C. clairvoyance.
D. psychokinesis.
A
The idea that many people seem unable to detect gradual but deadly trends in modern civilization is an example of the Hawthorne Effect.
A. TRUE
B. FALSE
F
"What is it?" is to the orientation response as "Who cares?" is to
A. habituation.
B. selective attention.
C. divided attention.
D. perceptual expectancy.
A
According to psychologist Barbara Frederickson, _______ generally narrow our perceptual focus, increasing the likelihood of inattentional blindness, while _______ can actually broaden the scope of attention.
A. positive emotions; negative emotions
B. negative emotions; positive emotions
C. perceptual sets; perceptual habits
D. perceptual habits; perceptual sets
B
Ambiguous stimuli allow us to hold more than one perceptual
A. gradient.
B. parallax.
C. constancy.
D. hypothesis.
D
_______ are features found in paintings, drawings, and photographs that supply information about space, depth, and distance.
A. Stereoscopic vision
B. Pictorial accommodation cues
C. Pictorial depth cues Student Response
D. Figure-ground organization
C
The Gestalt principles offer us some basic "plans" for organizing parts of our day-to-day perceptions based on

A. learning.
B. past experience.
C. top-down processing.
D. all of these.
D
Concerning the nature of sleep, which of the following statements is FALSE?
A. A sleeper upon reaching Stage 4 sleep will remain in this stage for the duration of the night.
B. A sleeper's EEG patterns in REM sleep are similar to Stage 1 EEG patterns.
C. A person will shift between deeper and lighter sleep throughout the night.
D. A person's REM sleep is associated with dreaming.
A
Upon awakening from sleep, Zack cannot move; and as he struggles, he feels evil presences standing over him whispering to each other. Suddenly he hears screams from somewhere in his bedroom. Within moments, the evil presences disappear; and Zack is able to move again, realizing that the screaming was on the radio. Zack just experienced
A. REM behavior disorder.
B. hypnopompic hallucinations.
C. narcolepsy.
D. lucid paradoxical hallucinations.
B
Narcolepsy refers to
A. sudden sleep attacks.
B. excessive daytime sleepiness.
C. vivid, recurrent nightmares.
D. a breathing problem during sleep.
A
________ waves often occur when you are relaxed and are allowing your thoughts to drift.
A. Alpha
B. Beta
C. Theta
D. Delta
A
A person having a nightmare will
A. perspire heavily during the nightmare and upon awakening.
B. be incoherent and inconsolable upon awakening.
C. show slight or no movement while having the nightmare.
D. have amnesia for the episode.
C
Differences between nightmares and night terrors include
A. that nightmares occur during REM sleep; night terrors occur during NREM sleep.
B. that nightmares are difficult to remember; night terrors are easy to remember.
C. that nightmares involve hallucinations; night terrors are just bad dreams.
D. all of these.
A
Sleepwalking
A. occurs most often in association with narcolepsy.
B. is the outward expression of dream content.
C. occurs during Stage 3 and 4 sleep.
D. is characterized by all of these.
C
Insisting on a regular schedule for sleep helps establish a firm body rhythm. This is best achieved by exercising _______, which refers to linking a response, such as sleeping, with a specific stimulus, such as going to bed at a specific time.
A. sleep restriction
B. the relaxation response
C. stimulus control
D. paradoxical intention
C
Which of the following would NOT be good advice for treating insomnia?
A. Exercise in the evening is helpful in going to sleep only if the exercise is very light.
B. Eat a starchy snack, such as pretzels or cookies before going to bed.
C. Read a book in bed or watch TV.
D. Use the paradoxical intention by trying to keep your eyes open in the dark and stay awake as long as possible.
C
According to the dual process theory of sleep, ______ "calms" the brain, while _____ "sharpens" our memories of the previous day's more important experiences.
A. NREM sleep; REM sleep
B. REM sleep; NREM sleep
C. beta waves; alpha waves
D. alpha waves; beta waves
A
While you are watching TV, your mind begins to drift and you become increasingly drowsy. You know the television is on, but you cannot distinguish which program is on. Then, your friend says, 'You're asleep.' You quickly state, 'No, I'm not,' but you really were. The sleep stage described would be

A. REM sleep.
B. Stage 1 of NREM sleep.
C. Stage 2 of NREM sleep.
D. Stage 3 of NREM sleep.
B
While dreaming, your roommate jumps up and thrashes around violently, acting out his dream. Your roommate is suffering from
A. NREM behavior disorder
B. REM behavior disorder.
C. narcolepsy.
D. cataplexy.
B
In everyday life, changes in consciousness may accompany
A. long-distance running.
B. listening to music.
C. making love.
D. all of these.
D
Which of the following persons is/are attempting to alter his or her state of consciousness?
A. A nun living in a convent spends an entire week in silent prayer and contemplation.
B. Three businessmen head for a popular tavern after a stressful day.
C. An aspiring actor consults a hypnotist for help in reducing her stage fright.
D. All of these persons are attempting to alter his or her state of consciousness.
D
The continued use of barbiturates to treat insomnia tends to cause
A. a reduction in insomnia episodes.
B. an increase in narcolepsy.
C. a dependency on the barbiturates.
D. an increase in nocturnal enuresis.
C
A rat being provided with ICS is wired to deliver electrical stimulation to its own _______ by pressing a bar in a Skinner box.
A. corpus callosum
B. adrenal glands
C. limbic system
D. brainstem
C
After the successful extinction of your son's whining for a toy while you are shopping, you go shopping several weeks later and he begins to whine for a toy as if he is just checking to see if the rules have changed back. This situation illustrates
A. token reinforcement.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. stimulus generalization.
D. stimulus discrimination.
B
Which of the following would be considered a primary reinforcer?
A. praise
B. food
C. money
D. attention
B
You are a very good bowler now, but you did not start out that way. Your father reinforced you for each small improvement you made over several months. This process is known as shaping. T
T/F
True
To determine whether attendance at sports events is an operant reinforcer for a teenager, such attendance would have to
A. be demonstrated to be universally rewarding.
B. increase the probability of recurrence of the behavior it followed.
C. meet a long list of criteria that includes adaptability and reliability.
D. be demonstrably related to a basic biological need.
B
Three-year-old Johnny was classically conditioned to salivate to a bell that was paired with lemon juice. Johnny also salivates to the sound of a ringing telephone and to a doorbell, even though they were never used as conditioning stimuli. Johnny's salivation to the ringing telephone and to the doorbell illustrate

A. stimulus discrimination.
B. stimulus generalization.
C. extinction.
D. shaping.
B
Continuous reinforcement is more resistant to extinction than partial reinforcement.
T/F
F
If you walk under a ladder and then break a leg, you may avoid ladders in the future. Each time you avoid a ladder and nothing happens, this avoidance action is reinforced. This illustrates
A. the method of successive approximations.
B. superstitious behavior.
C. shaping.
D. response chaining.
B
A reward will reliably increase responding, while a reinforcer will increase responding only occassionally.
T/F
F
Which of the following is NOT a step in the behavioral self-management program discussed in your textbook?
A. choose a target behavior
B. record a baseline
C. choose reinforcing and punishing self-statements
D. adjust your plan as you learn more about your behavior
C
Learned reactions worsem many cases of hypertension. Traffic jams and arguments with a spouse can become _______ that trigger a dangerous rise in blood pressure.
A. conditioned stimuli
B. conditioned responses
C. unconditioned stimuli
D. unconditioned responses
A
After Pavlov had conditioned his dogs to salivate to the bell, he repeatedly presented the bell without presenting the food. As a result, ______ occurred.
A. stimulus generalization
B. stimulus discrimination
C. a spontaneous recovery
D. extinction
D
Tamara is deathly afraid of coming in contact with germs. So, her therapist gradually exposes Tamara to unclean things, such as touching dirt or taking a bite of an unwashed piece of fruit, in a calm, relaxed, and supportive environment. This technique is known as
A. desensitization.
B. vicarious conditioning.
C. spontaneous recovery.
D. modeling.
A
A relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience is the definition of
A. reinforcement.
B. introspection.
C. motivation.
D. learning.
D
Every time Lisa's dog heard the sound of the electric can opener he began to salivate because he associated the sound with the food. In this example, the sound of the can opener is a
A. CR.
B. UR.
C. CS.
D. US.
C
Memory is often characterized as being similar to a computer because
A. long-term memories are exact copies, like files on a hard drive.
B. memories are encoded, stored, and later retrieved.
C. the space available for the storage of memory is finite.
D. computers and the human mind both process information in a serial fashion.
B
Organizing and summarizing material to be remembered works because it
A. makes sensory memory more efficient.
B. frees up the serial processing resources involved in memory.
C. leads to better encoding of the information.
D. facilitates state-dependent memory.
C
Instances have occurred n which witnesses described a criminal as black, tall, or young; and then the lineup was held in which a suspect was the only African American among whites, the only tall suspect, or the only young person. Having situations like this would produce
A. the serial position effect.
B. a false positive.
C. proactive interference.
D. excellent recall memory.
B
You are introduced to Tim and Gina. Later when you see them, you cannot remember their names. If you try to guess their names, which of the following would most likely be your guess, considering how information is stored in short-term memory?
A. Thomas and Glenda
B. Tad and Gloria
C. Jim and Tina
D. George and Tanya
C
Regarding short-term memory (STM), which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. STM has an unlimited storage capacity.
B. STM deals with information for longer periods of time, usually for at least 30 minutes.
C. STM is seriously affected by any interruption or interference.
D. Once information is placed in STM, it is permanently stored.
C
Which of the following would be the most important factor to use in deciding whether to use whole learning or part learning in memorizing a poem or a selection of music?
A. the age and gender of the person
B. the intellectual level of the person
C. the number of days before the person must perform the poem or musical selection.
D. the length and complexity of the selection.
D
Episodic memories are not as easily forgotten as semantic memories.
T/F
F
Which stage of memory allows us to perceive motion pictures as seamless and connected images?
A. short-term memory
B. long-term memory
C. contextual memory
D. sensory memory
D
If only one choice looks like it could be correct among the other dissimilar distractors,
A. recognition memory may be poor.
B. a false sense of recognition may occur.
C. the serial position effect is likely to occur.
D. redintegration is likely to occur.
B
You have gone for the first time to one of the campus computer labs to work on your psychology assignments. However, you forgot your first-day handout, which has the psychology website listed. You spot a person from your class, and he tells you the website. You walk back to your computer and type in the website. In the process of working through the assignment, you accidentally exit completely out of the system. You cannot remember the psychology website. This illustrates how ______ operates.
A. sensory memory
B. iconic memory
C. short-term memory
D. procedural memory
C