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9 Cards in this Set

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(428 BC - 348 BC) - wrote about how humans perceived the world and the relation between our senses and our thoughts.

- Platonic-Realism: asserts that our perception of the world only captures a part of actual reality. Limited in what we can know about the world through our senses.

Rene Descartes

"Cogito ergo sum" - I think therefore I am

- Only thing we know for sure is that we exist.

- senses are unreliable and can be easily tricked, reasoning and logic allows to determine truth

- Mind-Body Dualism: Descartes argued that because the mind is not physical and the body is, they must be ind. from each other.

Franz Joseph Gall

Phrenology: (~19th cent.) Based on the belief that the brain is what produces a person's "mind"

- Certain brain areas have things that thye specialize in. They map to different regions of the skull.

- The bigger the size of the are on the skull, the more the person had of that personality trait.

Sigmund Freud

Subconscious: when unacceptable ideas, wishes, or desires, and traumatic memories are repressed this causes psychological problems.

- Id: the basic instinctual side of humans, inappropriate impulses, unconscious and inaccessible

Ego: seeks to please the id but in realistic and acceptable ways that serve long term goals

Superego: is what suppresses the thoughts. A stand in for society, parents, teachers. (An inner critic)

Sigmund Freud: free association

People talking freely about their lives without restrictions, esp. for hysteria

Wilhelm Wundt

- Believed unconscious experience was something that could be tested and studied with experiments

Introspection: subjects would be trained on how too study and report on their internal thoughts and feelings when given a stimulus (such as hearing a metronome).

Structuralism: asserted the mind should be divided up intoindividual parts such as sensations and emotions. This can be studied with introspection.

Max Wertheimer

Gestalt Psychology (early 20th cent.) - What we experience is not simply the sum of adding up a lot of individual parts

- Perception is ultimately subjective, we contribute our own interpretations and background to how we ultimately view the world.

B.F. Skinner

Behaviorism: early 20th cent., built upon the work of Watson, used the training of animals to provide evidence for behaviorism

- Focused on explaining the primary ways in which behaviors are reinforced.

- Positive, negative reinfocement

- Learning language - asserted that language is learned when children receive direct feedback from adults or other children

Noam Chomsky

- Disagreed with Skinner and argued that certain aspects of human language are special and cannot be learned.

Poverty of the Stimulus: the amt. of info. a child has in the environment is not sufficient to learn everything necessary for lang.