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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gestalt laws of grouping
• Basic Tenet – “The whole is more than a sum of its parts.” • Law of Prägnanz – Individuals organize their experience in as simple, concise, symmetrical and complete manner as possible
Binocular Depth Cues
• Bin. Convergence – Eyes turn inward as moves towards you. • Binocular Disparity – Eyes different angles
Monocular Depth Cues
• Texture Gradients – Grain of item
• Relative Size
– Bigger is closer
• Interposition
– Closer are in front of other objects
Perceptual Illusions
When sensation and perception don’t match
Direct Perception theories
– Perception comes from the stimuli in the environment – Bottom-up processing – Parts are identified, put together, and then recognition occurs
Constructive Perception theories
– People actively construct perceptions using information based on expectations – Top-down processing
Gibson’s Direct Perception (Ecological model)
Only bottom up. All info there perception instant. No top-down processing is necessary • Perception and action cannot be separated
Bottom-Up Processing Theories
• Template theories • Prototype theories • Feature theories • Structural description theories
evidence for prototype theory Franks & Bransford (1971)
– Presented objects based on prototypes – Prototype not shown – Yet participants are confident they had seen prototype – Suggests existence of prototypes
Prototype Evidence Solso & McCarthy (1981)
– Participants were shown a series of faces
– Later, a recognition test was given with some old faces, a prototype face, and some new faces that differed in degree from prototype • Participants were more confident they had seen the prototype than actual items they had seen.
Research on Prototypes
faces, averageness
prototypical faces more attractive • Halberstadt & Rhodes (2000) – prototypes of dogs, watches, and birds on attractiveness – strong relationship between averageness and attractiveness of the dogs, birds, and wristwatches
Feature Theories
Recognize things by small # of features. Assemble elements into a whole. – cells that respond to specific features, such as lines and angles are referred to as “feature detectors”
Feature Evidence Hubel & Wiesel (1979)
using single cell technique – Simple cells detect bars or edges of particular orientation in particular location – Complex cells detect bars or edges of particular orientation, exact location abstracted – Hypercomplex cells detect particular colors (simple and complex cells), bars, or edges of particular length or moving in a particular direction
Recognition-by-Components Theory (RBC)
•Geons: 3-dimensional volumes –36 make-up large proportion of objects in environment –View invariance – can be identified when viewed from different angles
Evidence for Geons • Biederman & Cooper (1991)
– Used visual priming to demonstrate the existence of geons in a picture naming task – Subjects were shown a series of fragmented pictures and were asked to identify the objects
Top-down Processing (Constructive Perspective)
• Perception is not automatic from raw stimuli • Processing is needed to build perception • Top-down processing occurs quickly and involves making inferences, guessing from experience, and basing one perception on another
Configural-Superiority Effect
• Objects presented in context are easier to recognize than objects presented alone • Task: Spot the different stimuli, press button
Visual Pathways in the Brain
• What / Where Hypothesis – One path for identifying • Temporal lobe lesions in monkeys – Can indicate where but not what – Another for spatially locating • Parietal lobe lesions in monkeys – Can indicate what but not where
Neurons and the Environment
• Neurons becomes tuned to respond best to what we commonly experience • Areas of the brain are specialized – Fusiform face area responds best to faces – Parahippocampal place area responds to spatial layout information – Extrastriate body area responds to pictures of bodies and parts of bodies (but not faces)
“Place area”
parahippocampal place area is activated by places, but not other stimuli.
“Body area”
Extrastriate body area is activated by bodies, but not by other stimuli.
can't recognize something even though characteristics known. objects or people

– Shows the specialization of our perceptual systems
• Inability to recognize faces, including one's own • Cannot recognize person from face • Knows a face is a face • Can recognize individuals from voice • Can recognize objects • Can discriminate whether two faces are same or different
– Normal visual fields, yet act blind – Perceives only one stimulus at a time—single word or object
Spatial Agnosia
– Cannot navigate in even familiar environment – Gets lost
Auditory Agnosia
– Cannot recognize certain sounds – Can not tell if two melodies are the same or different
• Disruption of the “how” pathway • Optic ataxia – Cannot use vision to guide movement – Unable to reach for items
Agnosias, Ataxias & Cognition
• Demonstrate the modularity of cognition • Help us to understand what brain locations are associated with different types of higher level processing • Provide us with a model of how normal processing must work
Marcel (1983) Priming
Subliminally or consciously present prime (palm). The target word was plant or wrist. Rxn time was measured. The subliminal situation primed faster rxn time for both words. Consciously primed word showed faster for one and slower for the other.
Facilitative Priming
– Target stimuli (e.g., BUTTER) are processed faster if preceded by a related word (e.g., BREAD)
Negative Priming Effect
– Target stimuli (e.g., PINE) is processed slower if preceded by a word related to target’s alternate meaning (PALM relating to hand
Bowers, Regehr, Balthazard & Parker (1990)
Which of these triads is coherent?
Salient Stimuli
• Some stimuli features are very salient • Stand out and grab attention • Bottom-up - property of the stimuli • Color • Motion
be able to tell the difference beteen bottom up and top down
•Change in familiar stimuli causes one to notice it again – Smokers who quit, suddenly notice how much their clothes smell of smoke – If clock breaks, suddenly owner notices the clock isn’t chiming
Habituation/Dishabituation Paradigm
• Allows psychologists to test abilities of Infants and animals • Measure subject’s arousal to see if a change occurs when pattern or sound is changed – If animal or infant dishabituates to a change, then they can detect the change – If the animal or infant does not dishabituate to a change in stimuli, they did not detect the change
Functions of Conscious Attention
• Signal Detection • Searching • Selective Attention • Divided Attention
Signal Detection Theory (SDT)
hits, false alarms, misses, false negatives
Vigilance and SDT
• Vigilance - attend to something over time to detect a target signal. Vigilance decreases quickly (fatigue), thus misses and false alarms increase
Treisman’s Feature-Integration Theory
• Individual Feature processing is done in parallel. Simultaneous processing is done on the whole display and if feature is present-- we detect it. • Conjunctive searching requires attention to the integration or combination of the features. Attention to particular combination of features must be done sequentially to detect presence of a certain combination.
Feature search
The thing should just pop out at you like the red T among the other Ts.
Conjunctive search
Requires looking at each one because you are using a combination of features
Similarity Theory
• Disagrees with Treisman’s FIT theory • Similarity between targets and distracters is important; not number of features to be combined – The more shared features among items in display, the more difficult to detect a particular target • Some findings cannot be explained by FIT
Divided Attention tests
Dichotic Listening Task The Stroop Task
Selective Attention
•Ability to focus on one message and ignore all others
Cherry’s Shadowing Technique
Listen to two different conversations and repeat one of the messages, may be binaural or dichotic • Noticed in unattended ear: changes in gender, tone. Not notice - language, topic, played backwards
what is the difference between binaural and dichotic?
Broadbent’s Filter Model
• Sensory memory –Holds all incoming information for a fraction of a second – Transfers all information to next stage • Filter – Identifies attended message and passes iton to the next stage • Detector – Processes attended message
Broadbent’s Model Could Not Explain
Name gets through, effects of practice on other ear, can shadow messages that switch ears.
• Participant’s name gets through • Participants can shadow meaningful messages that switches from one ear to another • Effects of practice on detecting information in unattended ear (e.g., detect digit in unattended ear for naïve and practiced participants)
The Stroop Task
• Reading is so practiced, what once took conscious effort becomes “automatic” • We become unable to completely ignore what we automatically read • The meaning of the word interferes with the task of naming the color
Tresiman’s Attenuation Theory
•Intermediate-selection model
–Attended message can be separated
from unattended message early in
the information-processing system
–Selection can also occur later
Real Life Dual Task
• Driving and – Cell phones – Adjusting music –Watching the scenery • Almost 80 % of crashes and 65 % of near-crashes involved some form of driver inattention within three seconds of the event
Strayer & Drews (2007) cell phones
• Naturalistic Observation of cell phone use and driver behavior