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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the information that come from the internal environment to the nervous system?
visceral information
What is afferent?
the division of the PNS that transmits sensory and visceral information (including the somatic senses and the special senses) to the CNS.
What is efferent?
transmit information from the CNS to an effector (usually muscles and glands).
Define innervate.
a neuron capable of transmitting to an effector organ or receive messages from a sensory organ is said to innervate that organ.
What are the branches of the efferent nervous system?
What is the somatic nervous system?
consists of motor neurons, which regulate skeletal muscle contractions
What is the autonomic nervous system?
neurons that regulate the functions of internal organs and other structures (such as sweat glands or blood vessels) that are not under voluntary control.
What are the two branches of the autonomic nervous system?
What is the enteric nervous system?
an intricate network of neurons in the gastrointestinal tract that function independently of the rest of the nervous system but communicates with the autonomic nervous system.
Neurons are excitable cells--what does this mean?
that they are capable of producing large, rapid electrical signals called action potentials.
What are glial cells?
-constitute 90% of the cells in the nervous system and provide various forms of support to the neurons, including structural and metabolic support
What is a collateral?
a brance of an axon
Where is the greatest concentration of K+ and Na+ voltage gated channels?
dense in the axon, most dense in the axon hillock
Where are voltage-gated Ca- channels found?
axon terminal
What is the function of the calcium channels?
they open and allow Ca to flow into the cell, which triggers the release of the neurotransmitter
What are the two types of neurons found in the human body?
Bipolar--has two projections (axon and dendrite) coming off the cell body. These usually are involved in smell and vision.

Multipolar--the most common type of neuron. Has multiple projections from the cell body.
What kind of neuron are most sensory neurons?
pseudounipolar--which has a modified dendrite that makes the cell appear to have a single process that extends in two directions from the cell body. The modified dendrite is called the peripheral axon and the axon is called the central axon.