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185 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Average Daily Traffic (ADT)

Total annual volume of traffic divided by 365

Design Hourly Volume (DHV)

- Approx. 15% more than ADT

- Represents the volume of traffic that is tolerable for the average driver

(4 types of roadways) FREEWAY

- Most rapid and largest through traffic system across and between urban areas

- limited access and grade separated intersections

(4 types of roadways) MAJOR ARTERIAL

- A through traffic system across and between urban areas

- Allows direct access to adjacent properties but is characterized by control of entrances, exits and curb use

Color Rendering Index (CRI)

Back (Definition)


Unit of measurement that refers to the amount of light energy emitted by a light source, without regard to the effectiveness of its distribution


Illumination incident at a specific point equal to one lumen uniformly distributed over an area of 1 s.f.


International version of foot candle ( 1 square meter)

Incident illumination

Amount on a surface varies with the intensity of the source, distance between source & surface & the angle of the incidence.


The power to produce an effect. Measurement of how efficiently a lamp converts electric power (watts) to light energy (lumens). Does not consider effectiveness of illumination

Lamp Types & Characteristics

Back (Definition)

Functional Design Aspects of Plants (6)

1. Directing Views

2. Directing Movement

3. Spatial Definition

4. Screening

5. Physical Control

6. Climate Control

1. Directing Views

(Functional Design Aspects of Plants)

- Variations in the groundcover plane to form lines

- Framing views with vertical massing

- Contrasting character to draw one's attention to a particular emphasis

- Contrasting forms of plant material, further strengthened with color & texture contract, as well as emphasis of line and repetition

2. Directing Movement

(Functional Design Aspects of Plants)

- Similar to #1 for directing views

- Plant material as barrier to direct flow, best to locate pathways in most direct approach possible

3. Spatial Definition

(Functional Design Aspects of Plants)

- Using techniques from both #1 & #2, depending on the extent and character desired

4. Screening

(Functional Design Aspects of Plants)

- Vertical planes of plant material

- Either physical separation or visual separation

- Minimalize or eliminate the impact of undesirable views

- Used to reduce glare (daytime & nighttime [headlights & lighting cast into windows])

5. Physical Control

(Functional Design Aspects of Plants)

- Barrier planting

- Min. of 3' high and planted densely; branching should not break easily; thorny for best

- Prevention of Erosion (rooting character) [best with fibrous root systems of various depths interspersed with tap root systems; dense growth of groundcover; rapid establishment]

6. Climate Control

(Functional Design Aspects of Plants)

- Controlling the effects of solar radiation

- Reflecting heat off of adjacent structures

- Control wind (dependent on height, density, shape and width of wind breaks; height = greatest factor; multiple rows for best density; windbreak should direct wind up and over highest point by using lower plants on windward side, increasing in height to a peak on the leeward side of windbreak)


expression of the relative concentrations of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxyl ions (OH-)


- used when referring to soils with a pH less than 7

- most common in areas with high rainfall and are high in organic matter


- used when referring to soils with a pH greater than 7

- most common in areas with low rainfall


- used in referring to soils with a pH equal to 7

- most plant prefer a pH of 6.5 to 7.2

- Some prefer acid soils (5.0 - 6.5); some prefer alkaline (7.5-8.0)

Soil Texture

refers to the relative percentages of the primary soil particles or separates, in a soil mass

Soil Structure

the arrangement of soil particles and how they are grouped together into aggregates

Soil Separates

individual size groups of primary soil mineral particles of sand, silt and clay`


- largest mineral particle of the soil separates

- large pore space allowing good aeration and rapid passage of water


- intermediate-sized mineral particle of the soil separates


- smallest mineral particle of the soil separates

- slow drainage and poor aeration, but has the best nutrient holding capacity


fertile and easily manageable soils consisting primarily of sand (+/- 40%) and silt (+/- 40%) particles with some clay (+/- 20%)


- excess salt in soils

- common in arid areas with low rainfall because salts are not leached out of the soil as easily as they are in areas of high rainfall

- result of the quality of irrigation water, fertilizers, chemical amendments, or manures high in salt content

Complete Fertilizer

- contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N-P-K)

Simple Fertilizer

- contains only one of the primary plant nutrients

Incomplete Fertilizer

- contains two of the primary plant nutrients

- compositions with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are commonly used to improve flower production

Primary Plant Nutrients

Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Potassium (N, P, K)

Secondary Plant Nutrients

Calcium, Magnesium & Sulfur (Ca, Mg & S)

Plant Micronutrients

- Minor elements necessary for plant growth

- Essential for plant growth, but are used in much smaller amounts than the primary elements

- Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Molybedenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn) and sometimes Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and sulfur (S)

- Should not be applied as a 'shotgun' application to cover possible deficiencies, but rather only when a need is recognized

Nitrogen (N)

- one of the primary nutrients of plants

- required for the formation of proteins, chlorophyll and enzymes needed for healthy development of cell structure

- soluble nitrate or nitric form is most used by plants and characterized by being quick-release and immediately useable and also more 'leachable'

- soluble ammonium slower release, less leachable

- symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in plants are slow or stunted growth, yellow-green color (chlorosis) and 'firing' of the leaf tips and margins

Phosphorus (P)

- stimulates early root growth, plant maturity and promotes fruit and flower production

- insoluble, critical it's applied near the roots to be the most effective

- deficiency in (P) are plants slow or stunted growth, delayed maturity and poor flower/fruit development

Potassium (K)

- stimulates root growth, aids in disease resistance and improves flower/fruit production

- should be applied near roots

- deficiencies include: tip and marginal burn starting on more mature leaves, weak stalks, poor flower/fruit development and slow growth

Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur (Ca, Mg, S)

- secondary nutrients

- (Ca) is essential part of cell formation and structure

- (Mg) essential for photosynthesis

- (S) is used in protein synthesis


- Certain organic chemicals used to form strong bonds with nutrient metals (iron, zinc, manganese, copper).

- when used in fertilizers are soluble and help keep nutrient metals mobile in the soil, aiding in availability to plants

- Chelated iron is commonly used in the treatment of iron chlorosis

Soil Amendments (3 classifications)

1. Chemical (gypsum, lime, sulfur, etc.)

2. Mineral (Perlite, Vermiculite, sand, etc.)

3. Organic (Humus, peat moss, manure, etc.)

- should be used in amounts of 25-50% by volume

- bacterial organisms that break down organic amendments require enough nitrogen to adversely affect the amount of nitrogen available to the plant


decomposed organic matter which can aid in flocculating clay soils and help increase water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soils


- chemical amendment composed of calcium

- used to raise pH of overly acidic soils and to improve some clay soils by causing clay particles to bind together into larger units, thus improving aeration and drainage


- chemical amendment composed of calcium and sulfur

- used to improve some clay soils by causing clay particles to bind together into larger units, thus improving aeration and drainage


- process by which plants convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates under the action of light

- chlorophyll is required for the conversion of light energy into chemical forms


Loss of water vapor from the leaves and stems of living plants to the atmosphere


- usually due to iron deficiency

- body of the leaf is paler or more yellow than normal while the veins remain green

- Soil may lack iron, iron may not be available, over-watering and lack of aeration cause

Antidessicant (Antitranspirants)

- solutions applied to leaves partially seals the transpiring surfaces and reduces the water loss

- used to minimize wilting and stress


training of a shrub or tree branching structure in an interwoven pattern


severe pruning of major deciduous tree limbs each dormant season to create large knobby core of branching structure (results in extremely compact leafy dome form during the growing season and unusual branching character in dormant season)


-Used to combine the favorable rooting characteristics of one species with the favorable top growth characteristics of another

Meristematic Tissue

- composed of the cells actively or potentially involved in cell division or growth

- apical meristems (at the tips of roots and shoots), cambium or lateral meristem (increases girth of woody stems, creating both xylem and phloem)


Water-conducting tissue which compromises one half of the vascular system of plants


Food-conducting tissue which compromises one half of the vascular system of plants


- diameter of the tree trunk

- standard measurement is to be taken 6" above the ground up to and including 4" caliper size and 12" above the ground for larger sizes


Primary stem starting from the ground or close to the ground at a point not higher than 1/4 the overall height of the plant; used in size-grading of shrubs

Container Classes

- containers classed according to minimum and maximum acceptable dimensions in height, inside top diameter and inside bottom diameter

- classes are #1, #2, #3, #5, #7 and #15 (official standard, rather than gallon sizes)

Official Plant Material 'Grades' (12)

1. Shade & Flowering Trees

2. Deciduous Shrubs

3. Coniferous Evergreens

4. Broadleaf Evergreens

5. Roses

6. Young Plants

7. Fruit Trees

8. Small Fruits

9. Understock

10. Seedlings

11. Bulbs, Corms & Tubers

12. Christmas Trees

1. Shade & Flowering Trees

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

- size grading according to caliper & height

- street trees (specs should state height to which tree should be free from branching)

- shade trees (growth rate & form [upright, low branching, dwarfs, etc.]; includes large shurbs grown as trees

- multi-stem trees (clump & shrub form; overall height

- palms (height - overall & trunk)

- bare root (caliper, height & min. root spread)

- balled & burlaped (caliper, height & root ball depth/dia.) [nursery & collected req'ments]

2. Deciduous Shrubs

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

- size grading according to height and number of canes

3. Coniferous Evergreens (6)

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

1. Creeping or Prostrate (spread only)

2. Semi-Spreading (spread; heigh should be at least 1/2 of the spread)

3. Broad-Spreading, Globe & Upright (height)

4. Cone (pyramidal form; height; ratio of height to spread no less than 5 to 3)

5. Broad Upright (height; ratio of height to spread no less than 3 to 1)

6. Columnar (ratio of height to spread less than 5 to 1)

4. Broadleaf Evergreens (5)

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

1. Spreading (spread only)

2. Semi-Spreading (spread only)

3. Globe or Dwarf (height; no more than 2:1)

4. Broad Upright (height; equal to or > spread)

5. Cone (height; approx. 3:2)

5. Roses (3)

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

- size-grading by size, number and length of canes, with consideration to weight and caliper of canes

Group 1 (Hybrid Tea, Tea, Grandiflora, Rugosa, Hybrid Perpetuals, Moss & Climbing)

Group 2 (Floribunda)

Group 3 (Polyantha and Low Growing Floribunda)

Container grown - min. one month of active growing season and max of two growing seasons in a the container

6. Young Plants (4)

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

- includes young plants, seedlings, groundcovers, vines and lining stock

- grading by height, caliper, spread and/or age

1. No Stems

2. Single Stem

3. Stoloniferous

4. Vining

7. Fruit Tree

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

- primarily sized by caliper, which is measured 2" above the collar (height is then measured from the collar to the uppermost growth)

8. Small Fruits

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

- includes raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, etc.

- size grading varies according to characteristics of plant

9. Understock

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

- includes mostly shade, flowering, fruit and nut trees which are used for grafting and budding

- size-grading by caliper

10. Seedling Trees and Shrubs

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

- includes forest, game refuge, erosion control, or shelterbelt plantings under natural conditions

- caliper, minimum height and min, root length

11. Bulbs, Corms & Tubers

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

- sized by circumference, diameter or number of 'eyes' or 'buds'

12. Christmas Tree

(Official Plant Material 'Grades')

- sized by density, taper, balance, foliage and deformities (as standardized by USDA)

Soil Analysis Procedures & Type (2)

- follow USDA standards

1. Soil fertility analysis

2. Agricultural suitability analysis

1. Soil Fertility Analysis

(Soil Analysis Procedures & Type)

- utilized to evaluate fertility and plan fertilizer programs

- commonly used for field and greenhouse fertility control

2. Agricultural Suitability Analysis

(Soil Analysis Procedures & Type)

- determines potential hazards from salinity, sodium, boron and impaired soil structure

Half-Saturation (Soils Analysis)

- approximate field capacity which is the moisture content remaining in the soil two to three days after thorough wetting

- the water most generally used by plant material


- a measure of the electrical conductivity which represents the total salts in the soil (salinity)

Boron (B)

- necessary minor element in plants for differentiation of meristematic cells and regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates in plants

- toxic in western soils

- toxicities occur most often in inland desert areas associated with high boron waters

- deficiencies in high rainfall areas & areas irrigation for a length of time with low boron waters

- excess can only be removed by leaching

Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR)

- high amounts of sodium relative to calcium and magnesium result in a high SAR which is characterized by reduced rates of water penetration due to 'bonding' with soil particles

- excess sodium requires the use of soil amendments to displace sodium on the soil particle followed by leaching

Fuel Moisture

- moisture content of living and dead plant material as it influences flammability and fire behavior

- typically high in winter and spring while decreasing during the summer

- lower on south-facing slopes

Fuel Loading

- amount of plant material per unit area as it influences flammability and fire behavior

- increases as plants mature

Dead-to-Live Ratio

- relative amounts of dead plant material to live plant material as it influences flammability and fire behavior as fuel

- increases as plants mature

Fire Retardant

differences in fuel volume, inherent flammability characteristics of a plant and the ease of fire spread


direct transfer of heat by objects touching each other (ex. transfer of heat from burning plant material to a structure it is planted against)


- transfer of heat by atmospheric currents

- in windy conditions or steep terrain the effect so convection greatly influence flammability and fire behavior


- transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves and can travel against the forces of wind

- can preheat a neighboring home to the ignition point withou direct physical contact with the flames of the fire


- water-repellent characteristic of certain soils

- fires can cause soils to become hydrophobic

- decreased infiltration and increased runoff, influencing the amount of potential erosion

Plant Succession

- a unidirectional change in the composition of a plant ecosystem (result of plants responding to and modifying the environment)

1. fire occurs, destroying most existing vegetation

2. first succession becomes primarily grasses and herbaceous material (low fuel moisture and high dead to live ratio during the summer), generally lasts 2-3 years

3. second succession following a fire includes the growth of woody plants. as they mature they inhibit the germination of the 1st succession and eventually dominate. 2nd greatly reduces fire danger (high fuel moisture and low dead-to live). Without the thinning by man, the fuel loading and d-t-l ratio will increase to a point of high fire hazard after approx. 10 years

Watershed Management

- maintain vigorous multi-aged stands of vegetation which will have high fuel moisture, low fuel loading and low dead-to-live ratio

- results in lower fire hazard & better rebound

- better rainfall infiltration and prevents extensive runoff

Angle of Repose

steepest angle that bare soil will maintain (approx. 34 degress or 67% for most natural slopes)


- wearing away of land surface by the forces of water, wind, ice and/or gravity

- landslides, soil slip and dry creep

- rill erosion (numerous small channels only several inches deep) & sheet erosion (removal of a relatively uniform layer of soil)

Dry Creep

- occurs on steep slopes lacking vegetative cover

- movement of dry soil and/or debris primarily as a reaction to the forces of gravity rather than water


- soils on slopes become saturated with water

- in liquid condition the soils are more susceptible to the forces of gravity

- with soil slippage account for almost 50% of the total erosion occurring in most watersheds

Soil Slippage

similar to landslides, but of a lesser magnitude

Aerial Photograph (Oblique)

taken with camera axis directed between the horizontal and the vertical

(1) high oblique: horizon is shown

(2) low oblique: horizon not shown

Aerial Photograph (Vertical)

made with the optical axis of the camera approx. perpendicular to the earth's surface and with the film as nearly horizontal as is practical


Any material deposited by running water; the soil material of floodplains and alluvial fans


Any subsurface material that holds a relatively large quantity of groundwater and is able to transmit that water readily


The horizontal direction in which a slope faces, commonly expressed as compass direction or degrees clockwise from North


The portion of streamflow contributed by groundwater; it is a steady flow that is slow to change even during rainless periods

Carrying Capacity

The level of development density of use an environment is able to support without suffering undesirable or irreversible degradation

Chloropleth Map

A map comprised of areas of any size or shape representing qualitative phenomena (e.g. soil fertility) or quantitative phenomena (e.g. elevation); often has a mosaic appearance


A land development concept in which buildings and infrastructure are grouped together and large contiguous areas of open space remain undeveloped

Design Storm

A rainstorm of a given intensity and frequency of recurrence, used as the basis for stormwater management


A strategy used in stormwater management in which runoff is detained on-site to be released later at some prescribed rate; used to control discharge rates sufficiently to provide gravity settling of pollutants

Development Density

a measure of intensity of development or land use; defined, for example, on the basis of area covered by dwelling units, impervious surfaces, or building floor area


The rate of water flow in a stream channel or from a site; measured as the volume of water passing through a cross-section of a stream or swale per unit of time, commonly expressed as cubic feet per second

Drainage Basin

The area that contributes runoff to a stream, river, or lake


A right-of-way granted, but not dedicated, for limited use of private land for a public or quasi-public purpose


The transition zone between two groups or zones of vegetation


A group of organisms linked together by a flow of energy; also, a community of organisms and their environment

Ephemeral Stream

A stream without baseflow; one that flows only during or after rainstorms or snowmelt events; holds water for only a few hours or days, and dries up shortly after rain storms


The increase of biomass of a water body leading to infilling of the basin and the eventual disappearance of open water


The loss of water from the soil through evaporation and transpiration


A science that deals with the land and submarine relief features of the earth's surface, or the comparable features of a celestial body, and that seeks a genetic interpretation of them


The mass of water that occupies the sub-soil and upper bedrock zone; the water occupying the zone of saturation below the soil-water zone


A hardened soil layer characterized by the accumulation of colloids and ions

Hydric Soil

Soil characterized by wet conditions, or saturation, most of the year; often organic in composition

Lacustrine Wetland

Associated with standing water bodies such as ponds, lakes and reservoirs


The solid part of the earth or other spatial body, distinguished from the atmosphere and the hydrosphere


A parcel, tract or area of land established by a plat or otherwise as permitted by law

Lot Frontage

The portion of a lot adjacent to a street

Magnetic Declination

The deviation in degrees east or west between magnetic north and true north

Mitigation Banking

In wetland mitigation planning, the practice of building surplus acreage of compensation credits through replacement, enhancement, restoration and/or preservation of wetlands


The material deposited directly by a glacier; also, the material (load) carried in or on a glacier; as landforms, they usually have hilly or rolling topography

Nonpoint Source

Water pollution from a spatially diffuse source such as the atmosphere or agricultural land

Palustrine Wetland

Wetlands associated with inland sites that are not dependent on stream, lake or oceanic water

Parent Material

The particulate material in which a soil forms; the two types of parent material are residual and transported

Peak Discharge

The maximum flow of a stream or a river in response to an event such as a rainstorm, or over a period of time such as a year


A term from physical geography that is traditionally used to describe the composite character of the landscape over large regions

Planned Unit Development (PUD)

An area planned, developed, operated and maintained as a single entity containing one or more structures and common areas; may include multiple land uses (e.g. commercial, residential)


A map or maps of a subdivision or site plan

Point Source

Water pollution that emanates from a single source such as a sewage plant or stormwater outfall

Rational method

A method of computing the discharge from a small drainage basin in response to a given rainstorm; computation is based on the coefficient of runoff, rainfall intensity and basin area


The replenishment of groundwater with water from the surface


A strategy used from stormwater management in which runoff is retained on-site in basin, underground or released into the soil

Riparian Wetland

Wetlands that form on the edge of a water feature such as a lake or stream


The deposition of sediment in water due to soil erosion and stormwater runoff


The dates when the declination of the sun is at 23.27 degree north latitude (Tropic of Cancer and 23.27 degree south latitude (Tropic of Capricorn) - June 21-22 and December 21-22, respectively

Stream Order

the relative position, or rank, of a stream in a drainage network. Streams without tributaries, usually the small ones, are first-order; streams with two or more first-order tributaries are second-order, and so on


The division of a lot, tract or parcel of land into two or more lots, tracts or parcels for sale or development


A large and often destructive wave caused by intensive atmospheric pressure and strong winds

Water Table

The upper boundary of the zone of groundwater. In fine-textured materials it is usually a transition zone rather than a boundary line. The configuration of the water table often approximates that of the overlying terrain

Wellhead Protection

Land use planning and management to control contaminant sources in the area contributing recharge water to community wells

Tot Lot

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

2400 to 5000 sf

Neighborhood Playground

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

2.5 to 10 acres


43560 sf

1 furlong by 1 chain (660 ft by 66 ft)

Neighborhood Park

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

2 to 5 acres

Community Playfield or Park

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

15 to 25 acres

City Park

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

100 to 200 acres

County Park

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

200 acres or more

Natural Environment Area

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

5 acre minimum

Nine-Hole Golf Course

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

75 acres

Lake or Ocean Swimming

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

for every 25 ln ft of shoreline - 5000 sf for sunbathing, 2500 sf for buffer and pinicking, 1000 sf of water area for swimming

Nature Trail

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

1 to 2 miles long each

50 people per mile of the trail per day

Rural Hiking Trail

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

Forty people per mile of trail per day

Urban Hiking Trail

(Activity Size & Facility Standards)

Ninety people per mile of trail per day

Best Management Practice (BMP)

A method, activity, maintenance procedure or other management practice for reducing the amount of pollution entering a water body. Originated from Clean Water Act

Check Dam

(a) a log or gabion structure placed perpendicular to a stream to enhance aquatic habitat (b) an earthen or log structure, used in grass swales to reduce water velocities, promote sediment deposition and enhance infiltration


An extra storage space provided near an inlet of a wet pond or constructed wetland to trap incoming sediments before they accumulate in the pond

Headwater Stream

smallest first and second order tributary streams in a drainage network

Infiltration Basin

concave vegetated surface designed to hold water so that it can gradually infiltrate into the soil


National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, a provision of the Clean Water Act that prohibits discharge of pollutants into waters of the United States unless a special permit is issued by the EPA, state or other delegated agency


(4 types of roadways)

movement of traffic between major arterials and local streets with direct access to adjacent properties. traffic control usually provided by signals and stop signs

LOCAL STREET(4 types of roadways)

Local traffic movement with direct access to adjacent properties. stop signs


A vertical column of township


A vertical column of township

Section (PLSS)

A one-square-mile block of land, containing 640 acres, 1/36 of a township


A vertical column of township

Section (PLSS)

A one-square-mile block of land, containing 640 acres, 1/36 of a township


Approximately 6-mile square area of land, containing 36 sections. Also horizontal row in the PLSS

Boreal Forests or Taiga

-largest terrestrial biome

-short, moist, moderately warm summers and long, cold, dry winters

-soil is thin, nutrient-poor and acidic

-canopy permits low light, understory is limited

-cold-tolerant evergreen conifers

Littoral Drift

Transport of non-cohesive sediments (ie sand) along the foreshore and the shore face due to the action of the breaking waves and long shore current


A wetland that receives nutrients from groundwater and has non-acidic peats


Periodically inundated wetland that may or may not have water present


A wetland associated with saltwater

Septic system

Usually requires 2+ acres, discharges into underground drain field, soil must be pervious and slope is less than 15%

4 Soil Properties

1. Plasticity (deformed without breaking apart)

2. Elasticity (return to original shape)

3. Liquid Limit (min. Moisture content which soil will flow under own weight)

4. Permeability (ability to transfer water)

4 Soil Properties

1. Plasticity (deformed without breaking apart)

2. Elasticity (return to original shape)

3. Liquid Limit (min. Moisture content which soil will flow under own weight)

4. Permeability (ability to transfer water)


Biological Oxygen Demand

-measure of the pollution load on the receiving body of water

- measure of the organic compounds in waste water that require oxidation in order to become stable

- measure of the amount of oxygen required to oxidiZe and stabilize the organic materials in polluted water


Artificial feature creating extra turns in a roadway; traffic calming


The transfer of an atmospheric property due to mass air motion along gradient of the property in question; the horizontal spreading of local effects by wind


Reflected solar radiation factor


Hard, fine-grained igneous rock caused by volcanism


Freshly dead or partially decomposed organic matter

Eolian soils

Soils deposited by the wind