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64 Cards in this Set

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USGS Maps (United States Geological Survey)

Gives the location of all buildings (except in urban areas), bodies of water, elevations, contour lines, roads, rail lines, political boundaries, and some woodlands.


A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a material, rial, solid, or liquid. pH is represented on a scale of 0 to 14, with 7 being a neutral state, 0 most acid, and 14 most alkaline.

Site Amenities Include..

-Mature Existing Trees

-Existing Wetlands

-Historical Structures

Hydric Soils are typically..

- Bluish in color

-Heavily Saturated with water for long periods of time.



The use if drought tolerant plants and do no need to be native to be incorporated

A Capital Improvements Program..

outlines city services that are to be repaired, expanded or otherwise upgraded.

Alta Surveys Contain..

Boundary information, easements, right of ways and other access information, flood zone classification, topography and building locations.

A Base map includes

-Property Boundaries



-Location of Existing Buildings

-Ownership information

-Right of ways

-Bodies of water

In areas with a high risk of wildfires, areas within 30' of a structure should...

Be completely free of vegetation or be planted with plants that have low flammability. This area should also be kept free of any extraneous flammable material and should be regularly maintained to reduce the available fuel load.

Well graded soil

A wide range and even distribution of soil particle sizes, in which the small soil particles fill the voids created by the larger grains.

Gap Graded Soil

Contain various particle sizes, but which gradation between sizes is broken by the absence of some particle sizes.

Uniformly Graded Soil

A single range of particle size.

Friable Soils

Soils that are easily broken apart by hand.

Program Development

Should act as a summary of the site inventory and analysis, take into account the clients needs, function as a checklist against the design proposal can be addressed and occur before any significant amount of design work has been undertaken.

Soils that are best for a base course for road construction.

A soil with a mix of particle sizes offers the greatest strength and stability.


Frequently associated with low density, residential suburban developments and are rarely found in urban locations.

Environmental Impact studies

Address the extent of impact that a proposed development will have on a site and its environmental resources. It will also provide recommendations for site monitoring and suggest strategies for mitigation.

pH is considered

Neutral at 7.0, with levels above 7.0 being alkaline, and those below 7.0 being acidic. pH above 8.5 is generally considered strongly alkaline and pH below 5.5 is considered strongly acidic.


Wetlands are fragile ecosystems and unnecessary excavation and grading can disrupt groundwater flows that feed in to the wetland causing irreparable harm. The Landscape Architect should thus advise the developer to avoid disturbance to the wetland.

Soil amendments

Lime- Decreases overly acidic soils

Peat Moss - Increases soil acidity

Sulfur - Increases acidity

Sand - Added to increase drainage

As Built Survey's

document a final built work and ensure that a project was constructed according to site plans. As-built surveys are generally conducted over the course of construction to fully document all site elements that may differ from that shown on a landscape architects site plans.

Cluster Development

Increases the provision and quality of open space while maintaining the number of residential dwelling units allowed in their current zoning ordinance.

When consulting a topographic survey..

Spot elevations and half of the contour interval are considered accurate.

What is the maximum cross slope on a handicap-accessible walkway without handrails

According to the American disabilities act (ADA) a 2% slope is the maximum cross slope for a ramp without handrails.


Differences in weather related phenomena - such as humidity, temperature, rainfall and wind - over a relatively small geographical area.

Viewshed Preservation

The Preservation of areas of outstanding scenic beauty and can be accomplished through policy mechanisms such as scenic easements.

Site Inventory Items

-Existing Drainage Patterns

-Neighborhood Character


FAR (Floor Area Ratio)

Building Square footage/ Total lot size.

While Identifying Trees a Landscape Architect should be addressing

Location, age, health, appearance, tolerance to disturbance.

During a precipitation event runoff is influenced by.

Slope and topography, amount of impervious surface, amount of pervious surface.

What soil amendment should be added to increase water retention in soils.

Peat Moss or organic material in general.

How many acres is a standard Section of land

640 Acres

Zoning Ordinances

A Document that regulates development, density and allowable land uses. Zoning Ordinances can be adopted by several scales of government - typically towns, cities and counties.

Typically used to control land use, prevent incompatible adjacent users of land, manage building density and regulate the general height and size of structures.

What resources should be obtained when doing research on a site's history?

Aerial Photographs, Sanborn Maps, Local newspaper archives and historical census data.

Slope Inventory and analysis maps generally follow a convention of.

Light values = higher elevations, dark values = lower elevations.

What variables directly influence the landscape architects scope of work for site inventory and analysis?

The size of a site, its constraints and environmental features, as well as the proposed project's scope.

Program Development

A period of research and information gathering that the landscape architect can utilize to gather the input of various stakeholders to determine project outcomes and uses.

Salt Marsh

Are the most important, productive and diverse of all ecosystem types. Situated at the interface between land and sea, and salt and freshwater ecosystems, they offer habitat and food to a wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic life.

Slope Aspect

Refers to the compass direction that a slope faces.

Sight distance

Site Distance studies are used to determine the location of vehicular access points and take into account visibility, location of the proposed access point, its relationship to other existing access points and the speed and volume of traffic flowing along the proposed point of access.

Where do Watershed Boundaries occur?

Watershed Boundaries occur along ridges, and water flows from these high points into valleys and other low points (such as rivers)

Soil Plasticity

The Ability of a soil to be deformed under pressure without breaking apart.

When designing a residential subdivision for an incorporated municipality, what documents should be consulted?

-City Zoning Ordinance

-FEMA Flood Maps

Forest Fire Hazards can be reduced through what methods?

Reducing the available fuel load and maintaining a 'defensible space' around structures.


-Should be studied early in a project's development.

-The development of a site should follow of otherwise relate to existing land forms.

-Land forms can be documented during the site inventory process.

Zoning Ordinance would be consulted to determine the following..

-Permitted land uses

-Building Setback

-Minimum lot size


Is a soil that is primarily composed of sand and silt, with a small amount of clay particles. As a general rule, there are equal parts sand and silt in a loam soil, and most sources list loam as being composed of 40% sand 40% silt and 20% clay.

An evergreen hedge on the perimeter of a parking lot would provide what?

-Trap particulate matter, carbon dioxide and other pollutants from the air

- Provide Shade


Smaller Degree of angle of parking = narrowest sections.

90 Degree (Largest)

60 Degree

45 Degree (smallest)


Ecosystem type and are heavily reliant on watershed management


Any feature on site that no longer meets zoning or building code requirements.

Program Development should

Act as a summary of the site inventory and analysis.

-take into account the clients needs.

-function as a checklist against which the design proposal can be assessed.

-Occur before any significant amount of design work has been undertaken.

ALTA Survey should contain..

boundary information, easements, rights if way and other access information, floodzone classification, topography and building locations, among other information

An Evergreen hedgerow withing a parking area..

Provides shade


Traps particulate matter, carbon dioxide and other pollutants from the air.

ADA states that the maximum slope without a hand rail is..

2% slope

What is true about slope and micro climates..

Western slopes are hottest in the summer

southern slope receive the most sun in winter months

southeastern slopes offer the most desirable micro climates

northwestern slopes receive cold winter winds

Gap graded soils

contain various particle sizes

uniformly graded soils

single range of particle size

well graded soils

even distribution of soil particle sizes, in which small soil particles fill the voids by the larger grain.

friable soils

break apart easily

When determining weather trees should be retained in a construction project the LA should analyze...

Location, age health, appearance, tolerance to proposed disturbance.

Soil Plasticity

The ability of a soil to be deformed under pressure without breaking apart.

USGS Quadrangle Maps typically show

-Township,range and section information

-new construction since the last printing



What is permitted to be constructed within a wetland?