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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Public Opinion
an aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs shared by some portion of adults
Push Polls
designed to manipulate the opinion of those being polled
Tracking Polls
seek to gauge changes of opinion of the same sample size over a period of time, common during the closing months of presidential elections
Exit Polls
survey a sample of voters immediately after exiting the voting booth to predict the outcome of the election before the ballots are officially counted
Samples and Populations
a representative slice of the total population, accompanied by a margin of error due to random selection
What can alter the results of a poll?
The wording of the question, how opinionated the person answering is
Sources of error in public opinion polls in which individuals feel obliged to give opinions when they are unaware of the issue or have no opinion about it
Social Desirability
People may respond to interview questions in a way they believe is socially acceptable, rather than being completely truthful
Generational/cohort Effect
Tend to have similar beliefs and opinions
Political efficacy
amount of impact citizens feel they have on the government
Trust in government
congress typically has the least, followed by the president, who is followed by the judicial
Political knowledge
Most people don't know much and the people who do tend to be rich and educated
most people are not very polarized...radical few are
Presidential approval
spikes and drops in a pretty typical pattern
impact and influence of one's social environment on the views and attitudes one carries in life, a primary source of political attitudes
political party identification; psychological attachment to a political party
set of coherent beliefs that offers a philosophy for thinking about the scope of government
Online processing
citizens don't remember facts but do remember feelings
What does the media tend to focus on?
Front runners and dark horses
Front runner
Person in the lead
Dark Horse
one who achieves unexpected support
Functions of the Media
informing, investigating, interpretation, socialization, and profit-making
Party Press
press dependent on political parties (the first era of media)
Penny Press
Newspapers sold for a penny, initiating an era in which the press began to rely on circulation and advertising for income and not on political parties. arose because of advantages in technology, audience increased in size and literacy, focus on sensational news and easy issues (the second era of media)
Yellow Journalism
intended to capture attention and increase circulation
Modern Press
The third era of media
Media Ownership
Independents and conglomerates
Cross-media ownership, fewer outlets for diverse viewpoints
Prior Restraint
judicial suppression of media
Near v. Minnesota
established prior restraint to be unconstitutional
New York Times v US
established prior restraint is okay when it involves national security
New York Times v Sullivan
established prior restraint is okay when it's libel (requires malice)
Miller v California
established prior restraint is okay when it's obscene
Gag orders
a case may not be discussed in public
publishing false and damaging statements about another person
Selective Exposure
people seek out information that is personally relevant and attractive; people want to avoid cognitive dissonance
Obtrusive Issues
issues with low threshold, generally affect most people, almost compel attention from political elites
Unobtrusive issues
issues with high threshold, most people do not directly experience, therefore the media has a greater influence on how the public feels about that issue based on what they publish
Agenda Setting
ability of the news media to influence the salience (importance) of topics on the public agenda
the media influences how the public views politicians by emphasizing certain criteria over the other
the media influences public perception of political issues by emphasizing certain criteria over the other
Episodic Framing
event-oriented reports and depicts public issues in terms of concrete instances; give littler or no context about underlying issues or context
Thematic Framing
Places issues in a broader or more general context
Bias in the media
Most journalists are male, white, educated, and liberal
Selective editing
Choosing what to publish based on personal opinions to influence public opinion
Funnel of voting
all the things that influence the way someone votes; chain of events that contributes to the vote
Voting age population
only 60% vote in presidential elections and only 40% in midterm elections
Economic model of voting
cost/benefit analysis
Psychological model of voting
Partisanship, efficacy
Institutional model of voting
rules of the system, behavior of the parties, campaigns, context of election
voters select candidates who will run on the party label in the general election
Closed Primary
only declared party members can vote
Open Primary
any qualified voter can vote
Hybrid Primary
Open and closed; some allow party crossovers, some allow the change of party affiliation on election day, independents may be able to vote, etc.
meeting of party members to select a presidential nominee
the scheduling of primaries earlier in the season in order to increase influence
Electoral College
Electors are based on the number of representatives and senators for each state, 538 total, 270 or more to win. used to be chosen by state legislatures, now chosen by popular election
Winner-take all system
Majority vote within a state= winner takes all of the appointed electoral votes for that state. every state by nebraska and maine.
Battleground States
swing states; states where popular vote is usually very close and the outcome is up for grabs
Faithless electors
electors who don't vote for the candidates they promised to vote for
Drawbacks to electoral college
Candidates can win popular vote but lose election, causes campaigns to focus on a handful of states, favors smaller states, electors are not bound to be faithful in every state.
Electoral College Tie
in case of a tie, reps chose president and senate choose vice president
Permanent campaign
focus on winning next election rather than on governing
in modern congressional campaigns, the person who raises and spends the most is the winner
President's positive party image influenes voters to choose other people from the same party, only in primary and never in midterm
Brand name incumbency
people are more likely to vote for someone they know and have heard about frequently
Fenno's paradox
people dislike and complain about congress but 80-90% get reelected. people disconnect with the representative and what they perceive other reps to be like.
Collective action problems
self-interest, free-riders
Incentives to overcome collective action problems
material (free stuff), solidary (getting to join and be a part of a group), expressive (getting to call oneself a part of a group and express and share the ideas of the group)
Two dimensional view of ideology
Republican vs. Democrat
Checks and Balances
each branch has power over the others but is also subject to the powers of the opposite branches
executive checks and balances
proposes and vetoes legislation, appoints judges, pardons federal crimes
legislative checks and balances
can override veto (with 2/3 vote), impeach executive and judicial, approves the appointments of judges, establish courts
judicial checks and balances
determines legality of executive actions, can declare "unconstitutional"
article one
article two
article three
article four
the states
full faith and credit clause
each state has to accept and respect public acts, recors, and judicial proceedings of each other
privileges and immunities clause
states cannot discriminate against citizens of other states
guarantee clause
every state gets a republican form of government and protection from foreign invasion
article five
the amendment process (2/3 of either house can propose, 2/3 of state legislatures can propose, conventions of 3/4ths the states can propose)
enumerated powers of national govt
granted to congress by the constitution. raising armies, declaring war, establishing rules for citizenship, power to tax, to borrow money, to regulate interstate and foreign commerce (commerce clause- gibbons v odgen)
necessary and proper clause
power to make laws that are necessary and proper and are not included in the enumerated powers. implied powers (mcculloch v maryland)
supremacy clause
the national govt is supreme over the state govt
concurrent powers
shared by the state and federal
congress's prohibited powers
deny habeas corpus, ex-post facto laws, direct tax, tax exports, grant title of nobility
state's prohibited powers
treaties and coinage, tax imports and exports, duties, armed forces and war
civil liberties
protections from the government
civil rights
protections by the government
first amendment
speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition
14th amendment
everyone born in the us is a citizen
barron v baltimore
constitution does not directly apply to states, must be incorporated
13th amendment
abolished slavery
15th amendment
gave black men the right to vote
broad coalitions of interests organized to win elections in order to enact a commonly supported set of public policies
interest groups
people who share a common interest and try to influence public policy to benefi themselves
buckley v valeo (1976)
individual contributions may be capped, but not expenditures (personal expenses that go towards own campaign). campaign finance laws can only regulate groups that "expressly advocate" for candidates
citizens united v fec (2010)
cannot regulate spending by corporations and/or unions. prohibits govt from restricting political independent expenditures by corporations, associations, or labor unions. based on first amendment rights.
how a bill becomes a law
introduced in house or senate, referred to committee and sub-committees, bill undergoes markup, bill is reported to chamber for debate and eventually roll call vote, sent to other chamber for approval (conference committee), sent to president for signature or veto
standing committee
20 in house, 16 in senate. basically permanent
select committee
joint committees
house and senate combined
conference committees
reconcile bills that have been passed as different versions in the two chambers
redistribution of representation, switches around the number of seats each state has in congress according to changes in the census
in response to the census, changes district boundaries to ensure district populations are equal in size
district boundaries are drawn to confer an electoral advantage on one group over another
house of representatives
bills that raise revenue must originate here (origination clause). accusations involving impeachments happen here, no filibuster, leaders in order (speaker of the house, majority leader, minority leader), 25 years old, 7 years of citizenship, must live in state elected. serve two year terms, directly elected by the people
advise and consent to president, approve treates and removes from office, has filibuster ended with cloture, leaders in order (vp, pres pro temp, maj leader, min leader), 30 years old, 9 years of citizenship, live in state elected. 6 year terms. directly elected by people after 17th amdt
president qualifications
35 years of age, natural born citizen, must be a resident of the us for at least 14 years
president term limitations
initially no limits, changed by 22nd amdt, only allowed two four-year terms
signing statements
written comment issued at the time of signing legislation
executive orders
order to execute law. internment of japs and germans in ww2. eisenhwer desegregating little rock hs.
executive privilege
keep documents a secret
us v nixon and clinton v jones
allow to self-execute in 10 days (congress in session, no override), veto, or pocket-veto (congress out of session, no override)
court structure
deemed by the legislature, dual system, state and federal courts, supreme, district/trial, appellate
district/trial courts
jurisdiction to hear nearly all categories of federal cases; civil and criminal. original jurisdiction
judicial review
determine whether constitutional or not. marbury v madison established.
unanimous and majority opinions
everyone agrees
dissenting opinion
opinion that disagrees with the majority opnion
concurring opinion
opinion that agrees with the majority opinion but had a different rationale
per curium decisions
opinion issued in name of the court rather than a specific judge; reflects opinion of the court
strict constructionist
strict interpretation of the constitution
broad constructionist
flexible interpretation of the constitution