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168 Cards in this Set

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Physical fitness
Is good health or physical condition as a result of exercise and proper nutrition
Physical activity
Body movement that expends energy
Exercise
Formalized training or structured physical activity

5 components of physical fitness which must be considered to achieve optimal fitness

Cardiorespiratory endurance: ability to sustain cardiorespiratory exercise


Muscular strength: ability to produce force for a brief period of time


Muscular endurance


Flexibility: range of motion around join


Body composition: the proportion of muscle, fat water and other tissues in the body

A successful physical fitness program

incorporates activites based on the five compoenents of fitness


Tailored to meet needs of individuals

Benefits of physical fitness



Weight management


cardivascular health


diabetes prevention and management


bone health


cancer risk


overall well being

Cardiorespiratory fitness if measured by

VO2max

What is Vo2max

max amount of O2 that can be consumed by tissues during exercise

What will help increase Vo2max

Gradual increases in exercsie intensity

Benefits of cardio respiratory exercise

Help maintain healthy body weight and improve body composition by reducing body fat

Reduce stress


Lowers risk of heart disease by maintaining normal cholesterol levels and lowering heart rate and blood pressure



Benefits of stretching
Improves flexibility

Reduces muscle soreness and the risk of injury


Improved balance, posture, in circulation of blood and nutrients through body

What is the fitt principle?

F= frequency


I= intensity (Low, moderate, vigorous)


T= time


T= type

Progressive overload
Prevents a plateau of fitness level due to the body adapting to exercise program
How do you prevent the body from adapting to an exercise program?
Modify one or more elements of the FITT principal will challenge the body in different ways so that the level of fitness improves
Mechanisms of anaerobic energy production
ATP found in the muscle provides energy for two seconds

Creatine phosphate provides ATP for another 7 to 8 seconds


Glycolysis produces a small amount of ATP


Carbohydrates are the only macronutrient available for in anaerobic metabolism

Aerobic energy production during exercise
When ADP and creatine phosphate stores are unable to meet energy demands breathing becomes heavier and oxygen intake increases

The pace of exercise decreases and the body relies on aerobic energy production

Source of energy during the first 10 to 30 seconds of exercise
ATP and creatine phosphate

Start using glucose

Source of energy from 30 seconds to five minutes of exercise
Glucose

Start using fatty acids

Source of energy from 10 minutes on during exercise
Fatty acids and glucose
Creatine phosphate is obtained by
Ingestion of meat

endogenous production by the liver and kidney

Creatine phosphate contains_____ thus need to____
Nitrogen containing, the need to remove as waste product
Describe energy source during low intensity exercise
Smallest amount is glucose

Largest amount is free fatty acids


Middle amount is muscle triglycerides

decribe energy source during moderate intensity exercise
Smallest amount is glucose

Free fatty acids, muscle triglycerides, muscle glycogen all about the same

Describe energy source during high-intensity exercise
Glucose and muscle triglycerides are the smallest

free fatty acids Is second


Muscle glycogen is the most

Effects of training on glycogen stores
Training increases the amount of glycogen that the muscles can hold by 20 to 50% which allows for increased endurance

____ is the primary energy source during high-intensity exercise

Carbohydrates because it is the only substrate for anaerobic energy
Cover hydrates are used during prolonged endurance to__
Maintain blood glucose
The primary carbohydrate source for physical performance is____
Muscle glycogen
During moderate exercise describe the contribution of muscle glycogen and liver glycogen
Equal
During high-intensity exercise described the contribution of muscle glycogen and liver glycogen
Muscle glycogen dominates
Describe the endurance of someone with a predominantly fat and protein diet

Someone with a normal next diet


And someone with a high carbohydrate diet

Fat and protein diet has lowest glycogen store

Normal mixed diet is middle


High carb diet is highest

Sources of fat during exercise
That ESN stored in the muscle and free fatty acid in the blood from adipose tissue
Effect of duration of exercise on fatty acids use
Use increases with time
Effects of training on fatty acids use
Endurance training results in an increase in the amount of fatty acids stored in the muscle which can increase the amount of fat for energy because it directly supplies fuel to the muscles training also causes muscle cells to produce new in the larger mitochondria which oxidize fatty acids to produce ATP also increases enzymes that aid in fatty acid oxidation



AKA trained muscles use more fat

_____ is the primary energy source during low to moderate intensity exercise
Fatty acids
Intensity and duration how do they affect fat use during exercise
That supplies nearly all energy during low to moderate exercise



Use more fat with increased duration

Protein is primarily needed to___
Build and repair muscles
Is protein used for energy during exercise?
Exercise increases cortisol which stimulates protein breakdown

Use depends on intensity and duration as well as availability of other fuels


Most recreational exercisers can easily meet protein needsWith a balanced diet

What is the recommended need of protein
.8 g per kilogram of body weight
Who might need more protein in the diet?
Endurance athletes and those doing significant resistance training
What happens to glucagon during exercise?
Stays the same for most of the exercise and increases after 100 minutes of exercise
What happens to catecholamines during exercise?
Increase slightly at first and then around hundred minutes skyrocket
What happens to cortisol during exercise?
About the same during exercise and then around 100 minutes skyrocket
What happens to insulin during exercise
Decreases lately and then around 100 minutes decreased significantly
What happens to growth hormone during exercise?
Increased significantly between 20 and 40 minutes and then level off
There is a greater uptake of glucose by the muscles when?
Glycogen has been depleted
Energy use after exercise
Fatty acids and glucose are taken up by the muscle

Greater uptake of glucose with glycogen depletion


fatty acids are major fuel source


Glycogen synthesis is the priority

How does the timing of meals affects fitness and athletic performance?
Important to allow sufficient time for food to digest before exercise
How long should you allow a large meal to digest before exercising?
3 to 4 hours
How long should you allow smaller meals to digest before exercising?
2 to 3 hours
How long should you allow liquid supplements or small snacks to digest before exercising
30 minutes to one hour
Exercise lasting greater than one hour requires
Food intake to maintain blood glucose levels

Carbohydrate intake recommended at 15 to 20 minute intervals

_____ after exercise will affect how the body recovers

Food eaten
Food goals before exercising
Maximize glycogen stores

Adequate hydration


Minimize undigested food in the stomach

What should a proper meal consist of before exercise?
60 to 70% carbohydrate

10 to 20% protein


Low fat and fiber


2-4 hours before exercise

grams of carbs in 1/2 a banana

15 grams

1/2 bagel carbs

15 grams

Grams of carbs in sports drink

13-19 grams

Important to consume during exercise

maintain hydration


Carbs 30-60 grams per hour consumed every 15-20 minutes

goals for after exercise

Replenish glycogen


Muscle repair and recovery

How to replenish glycogen after exercise
Consume karma hydrate after exercise helps replenish muscle and liver glycogen most effective 30 to 45 minutes after exercise.

For muscle repair what type of meal should be consumed after exercise

high carb moderate protein low fat

______ after exercise increaes muscle protein synthesis

consuming protein and carbs

Minerals that may be concern in highly active people

iron and calcium

How is iron an issue in highly active individuals

Nexessary for energy metabolism and oxygen transport


levels may be low due to menstratuion, intravascular hemolysis or sports anemia

what happens after 2% loss of body water

impaired aerobic performance

What happens after 4% loss of body water

Reduced muscle endurance (thirst)

What happens after 6% loss of water

reduced muscle strength

What happens after 8% loss of water

Heat cramps and heat exhaustion

Water loss during exercise depends on

environment


training


acclimitization

Vasodialation during heat illness causes

dizziness (low BP)

Excessive loss of sweat during heat illness causes

Loss of electrolytes (heat crams and heat exhustion)




Loss of water causes heat exhaustion

Environmental heat stress and exercise causes

Excessive rise in core temp


heat stroke

signs of heat exhaustion

Profuse sweating

fatigue


Thirst


cramps


Headache


Dizziness or lightheadedness


Weakness


Nausea and vomitting


Cool moist skin

Signs of heat stroke
Body temp above 103

Red hot and dry skin (no sweat)


rapid strong pulse


rapid shallow breathing


throbbing headache


dizziness


nausea


extreme confusion


unconsciousness

benefits of heat acclimatization

Increase in plasma volume

Increased size of sweat glands


Amount of sodium in sweat decreases


Sweating starts at lower core body temperature

Healthy adult women require how many cups of water per day
Nine
Healthy adult males require how many cups of water per day
13
To determine the amount of fluid needed for exercise
Weigh yourself before-and-after exercise

Consume 16 - 24 Ounces of fluid for every pound of body weight loss during exercise

Sports drinks contain

16 8% carbohydrates

Sodium and potassium

What beverages are suboptimal for hydration during physical activity
Juice and juice drinks

Carbonated drinks


Alcohol

What is an ergogenic aid

Any substance that is used to improve athletic performance

most commonly used ergogenic aids

Creatine

Caffeine


Anabolic steroids


Growth hormone


Erythropoietin

Most widely used ergogenic aid
Creatine
creatine improves athletic performance in advance such as
High intensity short duration exercise
Creatine is shown to
Increase muscle strength and muscle mass
Negative effects of creatine
No negative effects on blood pressure kidney or liver function in healthy people
Caffeine stimulates_____ and decreases_____
Stimulates the central nervous system and decreases perception of effort
The effect of caffeine on energy use
May increase metabolism study acids for energy and spare glycogen stores
Blank enhances athletic performance during endurance events
Caffeine
The NCAA classifies caffeine as a band substance when____
When you're in concentrations exceed 15 mcg/mL
What are anabolic steroids
Testosterone-based substances that promote muscle strength and development
Negative side effects of anabolic steroids
Impotence in men

Amenorrhea and women


Changes in hair growth


Extreme mood swings and aggressiveness

Growth hormone causes an increase in this type of mass and a decrease in ___
Increase in fat-free mass

Decrease in body fat

Growth hormone shows no increase of

concurrent increase in muscle strength


does not augment increase in contractile protein synthesis

abuse of growth hormone can lead to
Development of diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypertension, acromegaly

what is acromegaly?

produce too much growth hormone and your bones increase in size

Erythropoietin is produced by

the kidneys

Erythropoietin results in

when there is a decrease in blood oxygen levels the hormone travels to bone marrow and stimulates red blood cell formation

Blood doping before synthetic erythropoietin was invented

take some of athletes blood before competition take out blood cells and store them and inject before competition

Risks associated with erythropoietin doping

increases blood viscocity if the blood becomes too thick it moves slowly and clogs capillaries (in brain can cause stroke, in heart can cause heart attack

what is food safety?

Practices that prevent contamination and ensure suit is safe to eat
And unsafe food supply can lead to
Foodborne illnesses
Food born illnesses can be
An infection or intoxication from pathogens and food
What are pathogens?
Disease causing organisms

Viruses


Bacteria


Molds


Parasites


Prions Which are self reproducing Proteins that cause brain disease

What are toxins
Poisons produced by living organisms
Development of foodborne illnesses result from
Interaction of pathogen, host and environment
Example of an infection with an organism
E. coli or salmonella
Intoxication that occurs from toxins produced by pathogen example

clostridium botulinium

Methods of exposure or transmission for foodborne illnesses
Fecal to oral: may result from improper hygiene

eating raw Or undercooked meat, poultry, or fish

Who is at risk for foodborne illnesses?
Older individuals

young children


Pregnant Women


Anyone with a compromised immune systemSuch as people with HIV-AIDS cancer and diabetes

What type of foods are the most common foods for bacteria to thrive on
Protein rich
Bacterial growth relies on
A source of nutrients, moisture, high PH, temperature, time
Strategies to prevent foodborne illnesses focusing on the four cs
Cleaning

Combating cross-contamination


Cooking


Chilling

Methods of cleaning to reduce foodborne illnesses
Wash hands regularly clean knives, utensils, countertops, sponges, cutting boards all fruits and vegetable should be wash with tapwater before preparation or consumption
Proper handwashing technique
Wash for at least 20 seconds only relying on hand sanitizer if handwashing is not an option use alcohol-based
Cross-contamination
Refers to crossover of pathogens from one item to another
Five dos for cross-contamination
Do separate Raw meats from produce in the refrigerator

Do you sanitize sponges and cutting boards with chlorine bleach solution


Do wash utensils, countertops, and cutting boards thoroughly with hot soapy water after they touch raw meat, fish, or poultry


Do marinate raw meat in refrigerator and sealed containers


Do discard worn cutting boards with lots of cuts and scratches

Don't of cross-contamination (2)
Don't use dirty towels to clean/Dry dishes

Don't reuse the marinade unless it has been boiled

To kill bacteria, foods must be cooked to proper temperatures of
160°F
Is color of me a reliable indicator
No
To check temperatures of me
A proper food thermometer monitor is necessary
What is the danger zone for bacteria to thrive in

40 to 135 degrees Fahrenheit

How long can a food be kept in the danger zone
No longer than two hours
What is the purpose of cold temperatures such as refrigerators for food safety
Slowdown bacterial growth
Refrigerators should be set at what?

Freezers should be set at what?

Refrigerators should be set at 40°F or below

Freezers should be set at 0°F or below

What is the FIFO method of storage
Store items with the earliest expiration dates in front and use them first
Leftovers should be refrigerated within_____

Leftovers can be in the refrigerator for_____


Raw meat, poultry can be kept in the refrigerator for______

Leftovers should be refrigerated within two hours

Left overs can be in the refrigerator for no more than four days


Rommie, poultry can be kept for maximum of two days in the refrigerator

What is closed coded dating
Packing numbers used by manufacturers

Manufacture can keep track of inventory or use in recalls



What is open dating
The calendar date listed on perishable items like meat, poultry, eggs, dairy

Such as sell by or Best By

The sell by indicates
The item should be purchased on or before that date

best by indicates

How long the quality of the food will be maintained not safety
Two types of products dating
Closed coded dating

Open dating

Food additives are items added to food in order to
Change the quality, freshness, and/or safety

And rich nutrient content


Improve the flavor and texture

Common additives to foods include
Preservatives, nutrients, flavor enhancers
Certifiable colors for food additives are
Man-made and begin with FD&C D&C or Ext.

Derived from petroleum and coal

How common are allergic reactions to color additives

rare

Toxicology of food additives
Some dyes which are petroleum-based

Have caused cancer in laboratory animals

Regulation of food additives
To receive FDA approval before use manufacturers must prove additives are safe
Regulation of food additives exceptions
Prior sanctioned or previously identified as safe example is nitrates which are used to preserve meats



Generally recognized as safe, believed to be safe based on review of historical use and research

Delaney clause

In the food additives amendment states that additives proven to be carcinogenic and animals or humans at any dosage must be taken off the market



Now considered outdated


Additives now safe if lifetime use presents no more than one in 1 million risk of cancer in human beings

Bovine growth hormone
Occurs naturally in cows to assist in normal growth and development
Recombinant bovine somatotropin
Is man-made to mimic bovine growth hormone

When injected into cows, result in higher milk production by 25%


Use of this is controversial but the FDA has deemed it safe

What other type of hormones are used in livestock industry other than recombinant bovine somatotropin
Steroid hormones to increased weight of cattle
Chemicals as food additives

antibiotics

drugs designed to kill or weaken bacterial growth

Given to livestock too


Treat sick animals


Prevent disease


Promote growth

Regular use of anabiotics leads to
Antibiotic resistant bacteria

Low-dose of antibiotics routinely put in animal feed to stimulate weight gain

Methylmercury
Mercury from an industrial pollution can accumulate in streams and oceans converting converted to methylmercury by bacteria in the water

Can I cumulate in shark, swordfish, mackerel and tile fish

The FDA and EPA recommend who avoids consumption of Fish with methylmercury
Pregnant women and young children
Pesticides
Chemicals that kill or repel pests
Two types of pesticides
Herbicides: to kill weeds

Insecticides: To kill insects


-Organophosphates used on fruits, nuts, vegetables, corn and wheat to control mosquitoes and termites

Risks of pesticides
Unintended harm to the environment, animals, and humans

Residual residue on product



Minimizing the risks of pesticides
80% removed by washing with clean, running water and scrubbing

Peeling the skin off produce or buying locally grown produce can help minimize pesticides in the diet

Top 10 foods containing pesticides
Strawberries, Bell peppers, spinach, cherries, peaches, celery, apples, green beans, grapes, pears
Organic
Indicates production without use of man-made pesticide, fertilizer, bioengineering, or irradiation
Livestock must be______ to produce organic foods
Antibiotic and growth hormone free
The use of the term organic on food items is regulated by
Organic foods production act and national organic standards
Two examples of organic farming methods
Rotating crops between fields keeps pass from building up and improves soil fertility

Planting select bushes and flowers to attract beneficial insects which ward off unwanted pests

What is certified organic?
Has been inspected by third-party agency to verify that no harmful chemicals have been applied for at least three years

The farmer and processor have annual certification inspections


They have kept detailed records of their practices

Biotechnology
Is used in the food supply to modify the genetic information of plants and animals to create ideal food products
genetically modified
Plans can be resistant to disease and produce more crops
Genetic engineering
Takes jeans from an organism and manipulates them to produce a modified product
Opponents to genetic engineering worry about
The disruption of the ecosystem and ethical dilemmas of creating Frankenfoods
Genetically engineered foods are regulated for safety by
FDA, USDA, and EPA
How prevalent are genetically modified crops?
Over 40 varieties including corn, soybeans, sugar beets, cotton
Environmental hazards some people worry may come from genetically modified foods
Unintended harm to other organisms, reduced effectiveness of pesticides, gene transferred to nontarget species
Human health risks some people worry may come from gentically modified foods
Allergies- introducing a gene may create new allergen

Gene transfer

Pros of genetically modified food
Decreasing nutrient deficiencies in the world

No effects on human health have been shown as a result of the consumption of such foods by the general population in the countries where they have been approved


Sustainable agriculture

golden rice

Genetically modified rice with higher amounts of vitamin A