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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1 TBS to ___ cc
15 cc equals ____ Tbs
1 Dram = ___ cc
4 cc = ___ Dram
1 Tsp = ___ cc
5 cc = ___Tsp
1 Oz = ___ cc
30 cc = ___ Oz
1 gr = ___ mg
___ gr = 60 mg
1 kg = ___ pounds
___ kg = 2.2 pounds
cubic centimeter
grain (for weight)
minim (for volume)
1 fluid Oz = ___ ml
___ fluid Oz = 30 ml
1 cup = ___ oz or ___ml
___ cup = 8 Oz or 240 ml
1 pint = ___ cups
___ pint = 2 cups
16 Oz = ___ lb
___ Oz = 1 lb
1 qt = ___ oz
___ qt = 8 Oz
dose large enough to kill the kidneys
dose large enough to kill the hearing
When is peak serum level obtained?
measured by the sample of blood drawn at a specific time after the medicine is administered
When is trough level obtained?
blood sample drawn at a specific time before the next dose of medication is given
What is the significance of measuring peak levels?
To determine if drug levels are high enough to kill the specific bacteria pathogen being treated
What is the significance of measuring trough levels?
To determine whether the drug levels have fallen low enough between dosages to prevent toxicity
What drugs are most important in monitoring peak and trough levels?
Aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy (e.g. gentamicin, tobramycin)
A drug that interacts with a receptor to stimulate a response
A drug that attaches to a receptor but does not stimulate a response
Half-life of a drug
the amount of time required for 50% of the drug to be eliminated from the body
A drug that had no pharmacologic activity (no active ingredient)
The amount of drugs bound to plasma protein is pharmaceutically what??
Inactive because the large size of the complex keeps them in the bloodstream and prevents them from reaching the site of action, metabolism, and excretion
The primary site of drug metabolism (biotransformation) is the __________________
Enzyme systems of the liver
The inactive drug components are called _______________?
the ability of a drug to induce living cells to mutate and become cancerous
Schedule I Drugs
- No currently accepted medical use in US
- lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision
- ex: LSD, marijuana, peyote, heroin, hasish
Schedule II Drugs
- currently accepted medical use
- abuse potential that can lead to severe psychological or physical dependence
- ex: secobarbital, pentobarbital, amphetamines, morphine, meperidine, methadone, Percodan, methylphenidate
Schedule III Drugs
- currently accepted medical use
- abuse potential may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dep.
- ex: empirin with codeine, Lortab, Fiorinal, Tylenol with codeine
Schedule IV Drugs
- currently accepted medical use
- abuse potential may lead to limited physical or psychological dependence
- ex: phenobarbital, propoxyphene, chloral hydrate, paraldehyde, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, flurazepam, temazepam
Schedule V Drugs
- currently accepted medical use
- abuse potential of limited physical or psychological dependence, prescription may not be required
- ex: Lomotil, Robitussin AC
What is the meaning of orphan drugs?
Drugs that cure rare diseases.
No company would adopt the disease to do research to develop products for treatment
What is d-dimer level? Why is it drawn?
Fibrin degradation fragment. Alerts doctor if there is excessive clotting. Test helps to rule out the presence of a thrombus
What is the meaning of a Black Box Warning?
The possible side effects of a drug as said by the FDA
What is a teratogen? What pregnancy category are they?
drugs that cause birth defects and are in category X
What are the four components of pharmacokinetics?
ADME - Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of individual medicines over time
What does parenteral mean?
route bypasses GI tract by using subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous injection
What does subcutaneous mean?
have the slowest absorption rate, especially if circulation is impaired
What does intravenous mean?
most rapid dispersal of drugs. Once drug enters the blood stream, it cannot be retrieved
What does enteral mean?
drug is administered directly into the GI tract by the oral, rectal, or nasogastric route
What is idiosyncratic reaction?
Occurs when something unusual or abnormal happens when a drug is first administered
What is adverse reaction?
side effects - any noxious, unintended, and undesired effect of a drug
What is allergic reaction?
Occur in patients who have previously been exposed to a drug and have developed antibodies to it
when adverse effects are severe
occurs when a person begins to require a higher dosage to produce the same effects that a lower dosage once provided
Placebo Effect
A patient's positive expectations about treatment and the care received can positively affect the outcome of therapy
Cumulative Effect
A drug may accumulate in the body if the next dose is administered before the previous dose has been metabolized or excreted
Generic name for Tylenol

spelled correctly
__________ is the drug reaction that occurs when the combined effect of two drugs produces an effect greater than the sum of each given alone
Synergistic effect
__________ deals with the study of drugs and their __________ or __________ on living organisms
Are drugs more rapidly absorbed by subcutaneous or by intramuscular injection into the muscle?
IM injection b/c of greater blood flow per unit weight of muscle compared with subcut tissue
Which route is the fastest method of delivering a drug into circulation?
IV injection
inhalation, sublingual, or topical
What effects topical drug absorption?
drug concentration, length of contact, size of affected area, thickness of skin, hydration of tissue, and degree of skin disruption
agent used to counteract the effect of a medication
generic name
common name used before official, may be used in any country, first letter not capitalized
Trademark, brand name, or propriety name
followed by the R symbol, easier to pronounce, spell, and remember. First letter capitalized
Four ways drugs may be classified?
1) body systems they affect
2) therapeutic use or clinical indications
3) physiologic or chemical actions
4) prescription or non-prescription
What is fast tracking?
when investigational new drugs will be used for life threatening diseases they will receive highest priority for review of the FDA
Example of an agonist
epinephrine-like drugs act on the heart to increase the heart rate

acetylcholine-like drugs act on heart to slow heart rate
process whereby a drug is transferred from its site of entry into the body to circulating fluids for distribution
The ways in which drugs are transported by the circulating body fluids to the sites of action, metabolism, and excretion
Metabolism aka biotransformation
process whereby the body inactivates drugs.
Primary site of metabolism?
The liver
elimination of drug metabolites
Two primary routes of drug excretion?
GI tract to the feces

Renal tubules into urine
What effect does weight have on drug therapy?
overweight patients may require increased dosages to attain same therapeutic response
What effect does metabolic rate have on drug therapy?
patients with higher than average metabolic rate tend to metabolize drugs more rapidly requiring larger doses or more frequent administration
What effect does illness have on drug therapy?
any pathological condition that could alter the rate of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
Can gender differences affect drug absorption?
yes. A woman's stomach empties solids slower, thus slowing the absorption of certain medications absorbed in the small intestines
How are transdermal medications absorbed differently in the very old?
enhancement of absorption: dermal thickness decreases

Diminish absorption: drying and wrinkling of skin, decreased cardiac output, and diminishing tissue perfusion
What is aspirin? How is it characterized?
blocks pain impulses in CNS, antipyretic, decreases platelet aggregation

nonopiod analgesic
What are thrombolytics and what are the risks?
Are used to treat DVT, PE, arterial throbosis, etc

Risks: GI, GU, intracranial, and retroperitoneal bleeding and anaphylaxis
What are NSAIDS? What is the risk to those on anticoagulants?
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatories

RISKS: increases the risk of GI bleeds if taken in conjunction with anticoagulants
What about dietary concerns for patients on coumadin?
foods high in Vitamin K (green leafy veggies) decrease coumadin (warfarin) action
Route of nitroglycerin
PO, transmucosal, topical, transdermal, SL, IV
Side effects of nitroglycerin
headache, flushing, dizziness, postural hypotension, tachycardia, syncope, palpitations, pallor, sweating, rash