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59 Cards in this Set

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what is an idiosyncratic effect?

an unexplained, uncharacteristic response to a drug; caused by hereditary factors or genetic differences - not dose related

what is an adverse effect?

undesirable side effects that develop because drugs are not totally selective in their actions, usually dose related

what is an adverse drug reaction?

a drug effect that is noxious and unintended when taking the correct dose

what is a teratogenic reaction?

the drug induced damage that occurs in a fetus

what is the chemical name of a drug?

refers to the chemical makeup of the drug and defines the unique chemical structure

what is the generic name of a drug?

contains the same therapeutic chemicals as brand names, always lower cost, must be bioequivalent, delivers same amount of active ingredients and has similar biostability

what is the trade name of a drug?

"proprietary"; registered trademark to a particular drug manufacturer, always capitalized, short and easy to remember

what is bioequivalence?

a pharmaceutical equivalent or alternative that does not show differences in the rate and extend of absorption; the two drugs are essentially the same

what does aa mean?

of each

what does ac and pc mean?

before meals


after meals

what does hs mean?

at bed time

what does IM mean?

intramuscular

what does po mean?

by mouth

what does prn mean?

as needed

what does q mean? qd?

every


once a day

what does sl mean?

sublingual

what are the different routes of administration?

enteral - through GI tract


parentarel - outside intestines


topical - anything subg and transdermal

what is pharmacokinetics?

the study of drug movement throughout the body, including how a drug gets to the site of action and how the body handles medications

what is pharmacodynamics?

the actions of a drug on a specific target organ

what is pharmacotherapeutics?

the part of science dealing with the use of drugs in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease

what is pharmacogenetics?

the merging of pharmacology and genetics, including the genetic factors that influence an organisms response to a drug

what is toxicology?

the study of poisons, pollutants and the undesirable effect of drugs on living cells

what is posology? polypharmacy?

the study of the dosages of medicines and drugs;


the use of many medications

what is ADME?

absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion

what is biotransformation?

chemical alteration of a fat soluble drug into a water soluble drug so it can be easily eliminated from the body

what is bioavailability?

the rate and extent to which a drug is absorbed into systemic circulation

what are different forms of enteral administration of drugs?

oral, sublingual, buccal, rectal

what are different forms of parentarel drug administration?

intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intradermal, intrathecal

what are different forms of topical drug administration?

transdermal, sublingual, epicutaneous, inhalation

how is a drug metabolized?

primarily in the liver

what is a metabolite?

a drug which has been metabolized by enzymes

how is a drug eliminated from the body?

excreted via kidneys in water soluble form; the drug must be water soluble to pass through kidneys

what is elimination?

the disappearance of the active drug from the bloodstream or body

what is excretion?

elimination through the kidneys and out of the body in the urine

what is a half life?

the time it takes for a drug to be half its original value


it takes 4-5 half lives for a drug to be considered eliminated

what is passive diffusion? facilitated diffusion?

movement of biochemicals across a cell membrane without the use of energy


passive transport of chemicals across a cell membrane using transport proteins

what is a loading dose? maintenance dose?

an initial high dose of a drug to establish therapeutic plasma drug concentration


lower doses used to maintain a desired drug level

what is drug tolerance?

occurs when a body adapts to a drug's actions and one requires larger doses to achieve the original effect


the liver becomes efficient at breaking down the drug

what is drug dependance?

loss of control over drug use, craving for substance resulting in physical psychological or social harm to user

what is a sympathomimetic? lytic?

mimics the effect of the sympathetic nervous system


blockers of sympathetic system

what is adrenergic? cholinergic?

sympathetic system neurotransmitters


parasympathetic system neurotransmitters

what is the sympathetic nervous system?

fight or flight


long postganglionic neurons extend to the organs they innervate



what are neurotransmitters?

a chemical released by nerves at synapses and neuromuscular junctions; purpose is to carry nerve impulses across the synapse; broken down by enzymes

what is the parasympathetic nervous system?

rest and digest


short postganglionic neuron synapse near the target organ

what are alpha receptors?

alpha 1 - increase blood pressure and flow, nasal decongestant


alpha 2 - decrease blood pressure

what are beta receptors?

beta 1 - located on heart muscle which increase heart rate, contractility and strenght


beta 2 - located on bronchioles


beta 3 - fat cells

what are muscarinic receptors?

located on smooth muscle and glands - decrease heart rate, smooth muscle contraction

what are nicotinic receptors?

located on postsynaptic and neuromuscular junctino of skeletal muscle - cause muscle contraction

what are the effects of sympathomimetics?

mimic the sympathetic response


stimulate receptors in the sympathetic nervous system - most characteristics exerted on CV system

what are diuretics?

the first drugs used in the treatment of hypertension


three classes - thiazide, loop and potassium sparing

what are thiazide diuretics?

act in distal tubule of kidney to inhibit NaCl reabsorption back in the blood, resulting in increased urination; over months the diuretic effect decreases but antihypertensive effect remains


suffix: -thiazide

what are loop diuretics?

most effective; greater and more rapid diuresis with loss of fluids through kidney excretion


suffix: -semide

what are potassium sparing diuretics?

acts in the distal tubule, inhibition of sodium reabsorption results in a corresponding reduction in potassium excretion

what is an ACE inhibitor?

angiotensin converting enzyme


block the conversion of angiotenisn I to angiotensin II by inhibiting the converting enzyme. They reduce peripheral resistance resulting in lower blood pressure

what is an angiotensin blocker?

block the receptors from receiving angiotensin II. They increase reabsorption of sodium and water in exchange for the excretion of potassium which results in elevated BP

what are cholesterol reducing drugs?

statins


primarily reduce LDL-C and slow the progression of coronary artery disease. They inhibit the HMG-CoA enzyme which results in less cholesterol formation by the liver

which cardiovascular drugs are contraindicated for diabetics?

thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, nicotinic acid



what can affect cardiovascular drugs?

NSAIDs can decrease effectiveness of an antihypertensive drug, epinephrine

which meds require a max limit of epinephrine?

calcium channel blockers, nitrates, non selective beta blockers