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27 Cards in this Set

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What are Cestodes? Trematodes?
segmented flatworms

non-segmented flatworms
* What causes Hyatid Disease? do these enter tissues?
Echinococcus granulosus (dog tapeworm)

yes, always
* What causes Cysticercosis? do these enter tissues?
Taenia solium (pork tapeworm)

yes, always
Which tapeworm, Taenia saginata (beef) or T. solium (pork), remains in the lumen (colon)?
Taenia saginata (beef)
Which types of worms have a scolex? what is it?
tapeworms (cestodes)

the head, suction cup-like, attaches to intestinal lumen
What is meant by proglottids? what is unique about their reproductive ability?
The body is composed of successive segments (proglottids) = tapeworms.

Mature proglottids are released from the tapeworm's posterior end and leave the host in feces.

Because each proglottid contains the male and female reproductive structures, they can reproduce independently.
How does Praziquantel work? what is it used to treat?
increases Ca2+ permeability --> worm detachment

* all cestodes
What is Taenia solium?
Pork tapeworm (more invasive)
What is the disease if you eat the eggs (gravid proglottid) of tapeworms? in which worm does this occur?
Cysticercosis (taenia solium)

* you become the host (instead of the pig)
In Cysticercosis (taenia solium), what happens? what are the target organs and resulting symptoms?
human becomes host --> worms disseminate

cysts, seizures (leading worldwide cause of adult-onset seizures), paralysis, seizures, vision loss
What is the best way to dx Cysticercosis?
MRI
What is the leading worldwide cause of adult onset seizures?
Cysticircosis (taenia solium) tapeworm
* What is the dog tapeworm? what disease does it cause? what role does the sheep play?
Echinococcus granulosus (multilocularis is multiple locations)

Hydatid Disease

Sheep is intermediate host, which the human becomes mistaken for
Does the Echinococcus granulosus or multilocularis have single or multiple cysts?
Echinococcus granulosus = single

Echinococcus multilocularis = multiple
Which disease is most known to cause cysts in the liver?
Hydatid Disease (Echinococcus granulosus)
What is the most pathologic cyst (other than space-occupying in the brain)?
rupture --> seeding adjacent areas, allergic reactivity, anaphylaxis
Would you want to biopsy a cyst to dx Hydatid Disease?
No! risk of rupture
What is the intermediate host of Schistosomiasis?
fresh water snails
What causes schistosomiasis?
tremadoes (non-segmented flat worms)
What are the three variants of shistosomes?
Schistosoma hematobium (bladder)
japonicum, mansoni (liver)
What is the form of schistome that leaves the snail and enters the human?
Cercaria
What is the tx for schisto?
Praziquantel! (the wonder drug for Cestodes/Trematodes)
What do large dams/hydropower cause an increase in (disease)?
schistosomes (trematodes0
What worm "pairing" is continuously copulating and can live in the blood for up to 20 years?
schisto (3 variants)
* Dx: what is the cardinal feature of embryonated eggs of Schistosoma mansoni (liver) in urine?
Lateral spine

* japonicum (also liver) does not have apparent spine
* What are the symptoms of schistosomiasis?
fever (Katayama), chills, hepatosplenomegaly, portal htn, urothelial carcinoma

--> eggs release harmful proteases, adults can avoid immune detection
What are three diseases caused by Trematodes, that are NOT schistosomes (and snails)?
1. Clonorchis sinensis (chinese liver fluke) (raw fish)
2. Fasciola hepatica (watercress/plants)
3. Paragonimus westermani (crabs --> lungs, often confused with TB)