Assignment 3: Epidemiology Essay

969 Words 4 Pages
e Three - Research and draft 1

Question 1
1.1) Give a possible diagnose and name the etiological agent involved.

Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium.

1.2) Name the intermediate and definite host of this particular parasites mentioned in 1.1

Intermediate host - Freshwater snails
Definite host - Humans, primates
(Tierney et al., 2007)
1.3) Discuss the life cycle of this parasite mentioned in 1.1.
According to Weerakoon et al.(2015), the schistosome parasite has a life cycle whereby the definite host is mammalian in nature, and the intermediate host is that of freshwater snails. They go on to say that humans acquire the infection after they are exposed directly to water sources which contain these cercariae (a free swimming
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Which other urine parasite will you look for in a urine sample

The chance to find eggs (which is what the main aim of using a urine specimen) is highest between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. and therefore the specimen should be collected around then. A thorough examination of the urine specimen should be done macroscopically to detect for light infections or other abnormalities.

Two main methods exist for the detection of S. haematobium eggs:

Sedimentation - The urine sample is allowed to sediment for one hour in a conical urine flask after collection. The sediment is then put into a centrifuge tube and spun for two minutes at 2000 g. The sediment is then observed under low magnification for the presence of ova.

Filtration - A polycarbonate or nylon fibre filter (12-20 μm pore size) is placed in a filter holder. The urine sample is filled into a syringe and attached the filter holder whereby the urine is expeled. The filter is removed with forceps and placed on a microscopic slide. The whole filter is examined for eggs after staining with Lugol’s iodine.
Other parasites include Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulu.
1.5).1)Name three anaemias which could give you these full blood count
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Your description should explain how the pathogenesis relates

Iron levels in the body normally are carefully regulated to ensure that enough iron is absorbed in order to compensate for body losses of iron. Schistosomiasis infections often lead to the person presenting symptoms of haematuria especially if they have infested the bladder and blood vessels. Iron deficiency anaemia develops when the body stores of iron fall below its normal range and cannot support normal erythrocyte production. Insufficient dietary iron intake, weakened iron absorption, bleeding, or loss of body iron in the urine as seen above may lead to this (Harper, 2018).

1.6).3) Patients from Sub-Saharan Africa often suffer from inherited haemoglobinopathies which results in haemolysis. What is haemolytic anaemia? Indicate what general peripheral blood morphological features you would look for to indicate that haemolysis has occurred and list two tests which could confirm

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