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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Classification of lice
Classification of fleas
Classification of bugs
Classification of flies
Classification of ticks
Classification of mites
Classification of spiders
Classification of scorpions
How do arthropods cause human disease?
Suck blood, inject toxins, burrow into skin
T/F: Ticks live for several years
Females of several species of this aracnid family secrete a neurotoxin that blocks ACh release, causing paralysis.
Tick [same mechanism as botulin toxin]
T/F: Ticks can cause paralysis
True (female ticks of several species secrete an ACh release-blocking neurotoxin)
These are four diseases that are transmited by ticks
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Ricketsia ricketsii), hemorrhagic fevers (arboviruses, eg: WNV, EEE, WEE), tularemia, Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
Scabies is this type of arthropod
Mite (which is a type of arachnid)
Life cycle of Sarcoptes scabiei
(1) Female burrows into cornified epithelium and lays 2 eggs/day for one month

(2) Larvae hatch, make a separate burrow, and mature into adults
Signs and symptoms of scabies
Itchy lesions. Itching is worse at night.
Common sites of scabies infestation
Finger webs, flexor surface of wrist, extension surface of elbow, axillary fold, buttock crease (warm, moist folded areas)
Burrows of this mite are not always found--instead, look for erythema, small papules or eczema
Sarcoptes scabiei
Transmission of scabies
Close, personal contact
2-4% of outpatient dermatology visits are for this disease
Patients with scabies have on average this many mites.
Ten (10)
Diagnosis of scabies
Biopsy or skin scrape
Treatment of scabies
The itch in scabies is due to this
Hypersensitivity reaction (thus even though scabies is cured rapidly with permethrin, sx may persist for weeks)
Size of tick vs. size of mite
Tick: 5.5 to 7.5 mm
Mite: 0.3 to 0.6 mm (1/10th as small)
Latin binomial of black widow spider
Latrodectus mactans
The venom of this arachnid blocks the release of acetylcholine and causes paralysis
Ticks (females of several species)
The venom of this arachnid is a peripheral neurotoxin that causes spreading pain and numbness.
Black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans)
Treatment of black widow spider bite
Antitoxin serum
The venom of this arachnid is a necrotizing agent that causes edema followed by gangrene and ulceration
Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa)
Latin binomial of brown recluse spider
Loxosceles reclusa
Treatment of brown recluse spider bite
Steroids, plastic surgery
The venom of this arachnid can kill children, usually by affecting the cardiopulmonary system
This arachnid delivers its venom through a stinger in the tail
Relative size of ticks, lice, fleas, mites, bedbugs
Tick > flea > louse = bedbug > mite
6 mm > 3 mm > 1 mm > 0.6 mm
What are the three types of human lice?
Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse)
Pediculus humanus corpus (body louse)
Phthirus pubis (crab louse)
Of the three types of human lice, this is the smallest
Crab louse (Phthirus pubis)
Location of eggs (nits) of body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis)
Life cycle of human lice
1 week for egg to hatch, 2 weeks of larvae to mature to adults
Lifespan of human lice
1 month
What is the total number of eggs laid by a single louse during its lifetime
100 eggs (in 1 month of life)
T/F: Lice, fleas and bedbugs all suck blood
True. They suck blood and cause itchy bites
Transmission of lice
Contact (sexual contact in the case of crab lice)
Treatment of lice
Gamma-benzene hydrochloride shampoo
Lice are vectors of these two bacteria
Rickettsia prowazeki (epidemic, recrudescent and sporadic typhus), Borrelia recurrentis (relapsing fever)
These lice are relatively common in all social conditions, whereas these lice are seen only in poor sanitary and social conditions
Head lice seen in school children everywhere, body lice seen in poor social conditions only
Latin binomial of human flea
Pulex irritans
Life cycle of human Pulex irritans (human flea)
(1) Eggs laid in environment
(2) Larvae and pupa mature into adults in 1 month
(3) The adult form can infect humans
Rat fleas are vectors of these two bacteria
Yersinia pestis (bubonic plague), Rickettsia typhi (endemic "murine" typhus)
These insects avoid light and suck blood at night, hiding in crevices and cracks during the day
T/F: Bedbugs do not transmit any diseases
Trypanosoma cruzi has this insect as its host
Reduviid bug (Rhodnius)
All species of mosquitos lay their eggs here
T/F: Only female (not male) mosquitoes bite
T/F: Only female (not male) fleas bite
False. Both sexes bite.
Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes
Yellow fever, eastern equine encephalitis and other arboviruses; malaria; Wuchereria bancrofti (elephantiasis)
This is the insect host of leishmaniasis
Sand flies (Phlebotomus)
Latin genus of Tsetse flies
This is the insect host of African trypanosomiasis
Tsetse flies (Glossina)
Latin genus of black flies
This insect lays its eggs in rushing water
Black fly (Simulium)
T/F: Only female (not male) black flies bite
Intermediate host for Onchocerca volvulus (cause of River Blindness)
Black fly (Simulium)
This insect glues its eggs to stones or vegetation
Black fly (Simulium)
Definition of myiasis
General term used to describe infection of tissue by larval flies (different species prefer different tissues)
Treatment of cutaneous myiasis
May require surgical excision
T/F: In myiasis, mature larvae pupate in the tissue to produce adults
False. In myiasis, mature larvae migrate out of the tissue and pupate in the soil to produce adults.