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129 Cards in this Set

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Teeth that are fused to the alveolar bone; a condition especially common with retained deciduous teeth.
Ankylosed teeth
A condition in which two adjacent teeth become united by cementum.
An abnormal sac or cavity lined by epithelium and enclosed in a connective tissue capsule.
A tooth within a tooth; a developmental anomaly that results when the enamel organ invaginates into the crown of a tooth before mineralization.
Dens in dente
An abnormal bend or curve, as in the root of a tooth.
The union of two adjacent tooth germs.
Twinning; a single tooth germ attempts to divide, resulting in the incomplete formation of two teeth; the tooth usually has a single root and root canal.
Partial anodontia; the lack of one or more teeth.
Teeth that cannot erupt into the oral cavity because of a physical obstruction.
Impacted teeth
Abnormally large teeth.
Abnormally small teeth.
A radiographic appearance in which many circular radiolucencies exist; these ca appear "soap bubble-like" or "honeycomb-like"
A small solid mass that can be detected through touch.
A disposition in favor of something; preference.
The mutiplication of cells.
The embryonic invagination that becomes the oral cavity.
In excess of the normal or regular number, as in teeth.
When is the stomodeum formed?
Third week of embryonic life.
The embryonic head is made up of which four processes?
Frontal process
Maxillary process
Mandibular process
The face and most of the oral cavity develop from what parts of the embryonic head?
Frontal process
1st Brachial arch
The maxillary process and the mandibular process derive from what?
1st Brachial arch
What does the maxillary arch give rise to?
Upper part of the cheeks
Lateral protions of the upper lip
Part of the palate
What does the mandibular arch give rise to?
Lower part of the cheeks
Part of the tongue
The olfactory pits divide the frontal process into these three parts.
Median nasal process
Right lateral nasal process
Left lateral nasal process
The philtrum derives from?
Globular process which is formed by the median nasal process.
The tongue develops from?
The first three brachial arches.
The area of the palate called the premaxilla is formed by which process?
Globular process
The lateral palatine processes are formed by which process?
Maxillary process
What fused together to form the palate?
Premaxilla and the lateral palatine processes
Where does the nasal septum arise from?
Median nasal process
When does odontogenesis take place?
Fifth week of embryonic life.
What does odontogenesis involve?
Ectoderm and ectomesenchyme
Odontogenesis begins with the formation of a band of ectoderm in each jaw called ___________.
Primary dental lamina
The tooth germ is composed of which three parts?
Enamel organ
Dental papilla
Dental sac (or follicle)
The enamel organ develops from ___________ and the dental papilla and dental sac develop from ____________.
First mineralized tooth tissue to appear and when it begins to form the mesechymal tissue within the tooth is called the ___________.
Dental papilla
After dentin is produced the dental papilla is called ______________
Dental pulp.
Cementum is formed when?
After crown formation is complete
What induces the production of root dentin?
Hertwig's epithelial root sheath
When is root length completed?
After 1 to 4 years after the tooth erupts.
Epithelium-lined blind tracts located at the corners of the mouth; relatively common; may be due to incomplete fusion of teh maxillary and mandibular processes and the defective development of teh horizontal facial cleft.
Commisural lip pits
This anomaly is similar to the commissural lip pit except that it occurs near the midline of the vermillion border of the lip.
Congenital lip pit
Small mass of thyroid tissue located on the tongue away from the normal anatomic location of the thyroid gland.
Lingual thyroid or ectopic lingual thyroid nodule.
This anomaly appears as a smooth nodular mass at the base of the tongue posterior ro the circumvallate papilla; can be asymptomatic or cause a feeling of fullness in the throat and difficulty swallowing
Lingual thyroid or ectopic lingual thyroid nodule
Is a lingual thyroid nodule safe to be removed?
If a normally located thyroid gland is lacking or nonfuntional, the lingual thryroid is not removed because it may be the only functioning thyroid tissue.
The most common cyst observed in the oral cavity is caused by a pulpal inflammation and is called?
Periapical cyst aka
radicular cyst
Periapical cyst that remains after extraction of the offending tooth?
Residual cyst
What are the classifications of cysts?
Odontogenic - related to tooth development
Nonodontogenic - not related
Intraosseous - within bone
Extraosseous - in soft tissue
The second most common cyst is one that forms around the crown of an unerupted or developing tooth.
Dentigerous cyst aka follicular cyst
1. Where does it most likely occur?
2. What is the sex and age predelection?
3. Clinical appearance.
4. What is the radiographical appearance?
5. What is the treatment?
1. Mandibular 3rd molar
2. Males between 20s and 30s
3. From small asymptomatic to very large and able to displace teeth and fracture mandible.
4. Well-defined unilocular radiolucency around crown.
5. Removal of cystic lesion and tooth involved.
Cyst found in the soft tissue around the crown of an erupting tooth; most likely the 1st permanent molars and incisors; no treatment needed.
Eruption cyst
This cyst develops in place of a tooth and is common in place of the third molar or posterior to an erupted third molar.
Primordial cyst
1. What type of patient will develop a primordial cyst?
2. Are they painful?
3. How do they appear radiographically?
4. How do you treat primordial cysts?
5. If the primordial cyst is histologically an ____ the risk of recurrence is greater than if the cyst is lined by _____.
1. Young adults
2. Asymptomatic
3. Well-defined, radiolucent lesion unilocular or multilocular
4. Surgical removal
5. Odontogenic keratocyst, Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Cyst that is characterized by it's unique histologic appearance and frequent recurrence; resembles odontogenic tumor; associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome).
Odontogenic Keratocyst
1. How is it treated?
1. Surgical excision and osseous cutterage.
A developmental nonaggressive cystic lesion lined by odontogenic epithelium that closely resembles the epithelium of ameloblastoma; has characteristic features called ghost cells.
Calcifying Odontogenic cyst
Asymptomatic, unilocular or multilocular radiolucent lesion located on the lateral aspect of a tooth root; most common in the mandibular cuspid and premolar area.
Lateral periodontal cyst
This cyst appears as a small bulge or swelling of the attached gingiva or interdental papillae.
Gingival cyst
Is there a sex predilection for lateral peridontal cysts and for gingival cysts and how are they treated?
Lateral peridontal cysts are most often found in males. No sex predilection for gingival cysts.
Surgical excision
Cyst that is found in 40 to 60 year old males; asymptomatic; appear as small pink bulge near the apices and between the roots of the maxillary central incisors on the lingual surfaces; radiographically appear as well-defined radiolucent lesion that is often heart shaped.
When it occurs in the nasopalatine canal it's called the nasopalatine canal cyst or incisive canal cyst and when it occurs in the papilla it's called the cyst of palatine papilla.
How do you treat the nasopalatine canal cyst?
Surgical enucleation
Well-defined unilocular radiolucency and is located in the midline of the hard palate.
Median palatine cyst
1. How is it treated?
1. Surgical enucleation.
Well-defined pear-shaped radiolucency found between the roots of the maxillary lateral incisor and cuspid.
Globulomaxillary cyst
Rare lesion located in the midline of the mandible ranging from odontogenic cysts to tumors; well-defined radiolucency found below the apices of the mandibular incisors.
Median Mandibular cyst
A soft tissue cyst with no alveolar bone involvement; affects adults 40 to 50 years of age, mostly women; swelling of the mucolabial fold in the area of the maxillary canine and the floor of the nose; when the lesion is large enough expanisive pressure can cause resorption of bone.
Nasolabial cyst
Cyst that is located on the lateral neck at the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and intraorally is most commonly found on the floor of the mouth and the lateral borders of the posterior tongue.
Branchial Cleft Cyst
What is the clinical appearance of a branchial cleft cyst that appears intraorally? and, how is it treated?
Pinkish-yellow, raised nodule.
Surgical excision
Cyst that appears as a raised nodule in the skin of the face or neck and it originates from the epithelium of a hair follicle.
Epidermal cyst
Developmental cyst that is often present at birth or noted in young children; usually found intraorally in the anterior floor of the mouth and may cause displacement of the tongue and may have a doughlike consistency when palpated.
Dermoid cyst
What can be found in a dermoid cyst?
Hair follicles
Sebaceous glands
Sweat glands
Cyst that may contain teeth, bone, muscles, and never tissue; in the malignant form teeth are not usually found.
Benign cystic teratoma
Cyst that occurs below the hyoid bone; found in young individuals under 20 years of age; presents as a smooth bulge or swelling in the area of the midline of the neck; intraorally it apears posterior of the tongue as a smooth firm mass of tissue; patient may complain of dysphagia or difficulty extending the tongue.
Thyroglossal Tract Cyst
How do you treat thyroglossal tract cyst?
Excisision of cyst and the tract, usually including a portion of the hyoid bone and muscle tissue along the thyroglossal tract.
Pseudocyst that appears as an anatomic depression on the posterior lingual area of the mandible; asymptomatic; found mostly in men.
Static Bone Cyst aka Lingual mandibular bone concavity or Stafne bone defect.
How are static bone cysts treated?
No treatment is necessary
What are the pseudocysts?
Static bone cyst
Simple bone cyst
Aneurysmal bone cyst
A pathologic cavity in bone that is not lined with epithelium found in young individuals; well-defined unilocular or multilocular radiolucent lesions found scalloping around the roots of teeth.
Simple bone cyst aka traumatic bone cyst
Pseudocyst that consists of blood-filled spaces surrounding giant cells and fibrous connective tissue.; has a multilocular appearance often described as a honeycomb or soap bubble; affects mostly females under 30 years old; can cause expansion of the bone.
Aneurysmal bone cyst
Aneurysmal bone cyst has been associated with?
Fibrous dysplasia
Central giant cell granuloma
In hypodontia what teeth are most often missing?
Max and Mand 3rd molars
Max lateral incisors
Mand 2nd Premolars
This condition is a familial condition and factors may include jaw lesions in infancy and radiation therapy during tooth formation; patients with this condition should be evaluated for other abnormalities.
How are supernumerary teeth formed; what dentition does it affect; where in the oral cavity are they usually found.
Extra tooth buds or cleavage of existing tooth buds
Both dentitions
Wha is the most common supernumery tooth called? where is it located; and what is the appearance?
1. Where are they most likely located?
2. What is the appearance?
3. Can they cause a problem?
4. Should they be removed?
5. What are they associated with?
1. between the max centrals at or near the midline
2. Conical crown and short roots
3. Yes, they can cause crowding, malpositioning, or noneruption of normal teeth.
4. They should be removed even if unerupted for risk of cyst development.
5. Associated with Cleidocranial or Gardner syndrome.
The second most common supernumery tooth is called? Where is it found?
Maxillary fourth molar
A small rudimentary tooth that occurs buccal to the third molar is called the?
Maxillary paramolar
What are the classifications of microdontia?
True generalized microdontia
Generalized relative microdontia
Microdontia involving single tooth
This type of microdontia is seen in pituitary dwarf and is extremely rare.
True generalized microdontia
In this type of microdontial normal size teeth appear small in a large jaw.
Generalized relative microdontia
Microdontia that affects a single tooth is far more common; and it most often affects ___________.
Max Laterals and Max 3rd molars
Which is a more common anomaly microdontia or macrodontia?
What are the three classifications of macrodontia?
True generalized macrodontia
Generalized relative macrodontia
Macrodontia involving single tooth
This type of macrodontia is seen in pituitary gigantism and is very rare.
True generalized macrodontia
This type of macrodontia is seen in individuals with normal teeth that appear larger because they have small jaws.
Generalized relative macrodontia
Macrodontia affecting a single tooth is uncommon; may be seen in condition that that causes enlargement of half of the head including teeth.
Facial hemihypertrophy
A developmental anomaly that occurs when a single tooth germ attempts to divide and results in the incomplete formation of two teeth.
What teeth does gemination most likely affect and how does it appear clinically?
Most often anterior teeth
Deciduous mandibular incisors
Permanent max incisors
Appears as two crowns joined together by a notched incisal area
How does geminatio appear radiographically, what kind of problem does it pose, how is it treated?
Radiographically shows one single root and one common pulp canal.
Aesthetic problem
Alteration of tooth so that it appears normal
Union of two normally separated tooth germs.
How do you differentiate between gemination and fusion?
If the neighboring teeth of the tooth in question are present, the tooth is geminated; if lacking, then the ttoth is fused.
What causes Concrescence?
Crowding or trauma
What teeth does concrescence most likely affect and what is the treatment?
Adjacent maxillary molars and adjacent supernumerary teeth and involve erupted, unerupted, or impacted teeth.
No required treatment
What causes Dilaceration? Where is most likely to occurs? What is the treatment?
Trauma to the tooth germ during root development.
Anywhere in the oral cavity, deciduous or permanent. No treatment requires; may cause problems in extraction and endodontic therapy.
Small spheric enamel projection located on a root surface as a result of the abnormal displacement of ameloblasts during tooth formation.
Enamel pearl
1. Where are they usually found?
2. What do they consist of?
3. How are they treated?
1. Max molars; near root bifurcation, occasionally near the CEJ
2. Enamel only, at times enamel, dentin, and pulp
3. No treatment required.
Accessory cusp located in the area of the cingulum of a maxillary or mandibular permanent incisor.
Talon cusp
1. What is it composed of?
2. What is the treatment?
1. Enamel, dentin, pulp horn
2. Removal because it interferes with occlusion, may be carious.
A developmental dental anomaly in which the teeth exhibit enlongated, large pulp chambers and hsort roots.
1. What is the appearance?
2. What is the treatment?
1. Tooth appears stretched, without a constriction in CEJ, furcation located near apices.
2. No treatment required.
Developmental anomaly that results when the enamel organ invaginates into the crown of a tooth before mineralization; radiographically a toothlike structure appears within the involved tooth.
Dens in Dente aka dens invaginatus
What teeth are most likely to have the dens in dente? How do they appear clinically? Can they cause a problem? What are they associated with?
Max and Mand incisors
Max laterals, peg shaped
Appear as either a normally shaped or malformed crown that exhibits a deep pit or crevice in the are of the cingulum.
Vulnerable to caries, pulpal infection, and necrosis
Associated with Periapical lesion.
Accessory enamel cusp found on the occlusal tooth surface; affects the mand premolars most commonly.
Dens Evaginatus
1. What problems can it cause?
2. What is the treatment?
1. Occlusal problems, pulp exposure
2. Removal; endodontic treatment.
Extra roots caused by external pressure, trauma, and matabolic dysfunction during root development; which affects these teeth mostly; no treatment unless extraction of tooth is involved.
Supernumerary roots
Affects max and mand 3rd molars
Affects mand bicuspids and cuspids
Incomplete or defective formation of enamel, resulting in the alteration of tooth form or color; results from the disturbance of or damage to ameloblasts during enamel matrix formation.
Enamel hypoplaisa
1. What can cause it?
Amelogenesis imperfecta
Febrile illness
Vitamin A,C,D deficiency
Local infection of deciduous teeth
Ingestion of fluoride
Congenital syphillis
Birth injury, premature birth
Idiopathic factors
One of the most sensitive cells in the body is?
Enamel hypoplasia caused by febrile illness and vitamin deficiency appears as? Most likely affects these teeth? Treatment?
Pitting of enamel
Permanent centrals, laterals, cuspids, 1st molars, which are the teeth that are formed during the 1st year of life.
Restored with composites or porcelain venners or full crowns.
With enamel hypoplasia resulting from local infection or trauma a single tooth is usually affected and it's called?
Turner tooth
A carious deciduous tooth with periapical involvement that can disturb the ameloblasts of the underlying permanent tooth.
Turner tooth
What are the teeth most often affected by Enamel hypoplasia caused by local infection or trauma (turner tooth)?
Permanent max incisors and permanent mand premolars
What is the clinical appearance of enamel hypoplasia caused by local infection or trauma?
Yellow to brown staining with severe pitting and deformity may be involved.
Results from a patient ingesting high concentration of fluoride.
Enamel hypoplasia caused from fluorosis ingestion or dental fluorosis.
1. What teeth are involved in enamel hypoplasia cuased from fluoride ingestion?
1. All permanent teeth.
What is the normal fluoride range?
0.7 to 1.2 parts fluoride/million gallons of water.
What is the appearance of mild fluorosis? severe fluorosis?
Mild- white flecks or chalky opaque areas of enamel
Severe- brown to black staining and a pitted or corroded enamel appearance
Enamel hypoplasia transferred from infected mother to fetus via placenta; children with this condition have numerous developmental anomalies and may be blind, deaf, or paralyzed.
Congenital syphilis
1. Affected incisors are called?
2. Affected molars are called?
1. Hutchingson's incisors
2. Mulberry molars
Developmental anomaly that results in a disturbance of the maturation of the enamel matrix and appears as localized chalky white spots on the middle third of crown.
Enamel hypocalcification
Staining of teeth that occurs as a result of the deposition of substances circulating systemically during tooth development.
Endogeneous or intrinsic stainging
Condition also called ghost teeth where teeth have very thin enamel and dentin and pulp chambers are extremely large.
Regional odontodysplasia
1. Do they erupt?
2. Which teeth are usually affected?
3. What is the treatment?
1. They do not erupt but if they do they are malformed and nonfunctional.
2. Anterior maxilla
3. Extraction.
Teeth that cannot erupt because of a physical obstruction.
Impacted teeth
Teeth that do not erupt because of lack of eruptive force.
Embedded teeth
The most common developmental defect occuring in humans is?
Impacted teeth
1. What are the most commonly impacted teeth?
1. Molars, premolars, supernumerary teeth, max cuspids.
What is the most common position of impacted 3rd molars?
Which tooth would be most likely to be susceptible to infection, an impacted tooth or a partially impacted tooth which is partly in bone and partly in soft tissue. Why?
Partially impacted teeth are more susceptible to infection because they communicate with the oral cavity.
When is the optimal time to remove impacted 3rd molars and why?
12 to 24 yrs old
with increased age a greater incidence of nerve paresthesia exists.
Deciduous teeth in which bone has fused to cementum and dentin, preventing exfoliation and eruption of permanent teeth.
Ankylosed teeth
1. They are commonly which teeth?
2. What is the cause?
3. What is the clinical appearance?
1. Primary molars
2. Trauma & infection of the periodontal ligaments
3. Appear submerged and have a different more solid sound during percussion.
What are the odontogenic cysts?
Dentigerous cyst
Eruption cyst
Primordial Cyst
Odontogenic karatocyst
Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst
Lateral Periodontal Cyst
Gingival Cyst
What are the nonodontogenic cysts?
Nasopalatine Canal Cyst
Median Palatine cyst
Globulomaxillary cyst
Median Mandibular cyst
Nasolabial cyst
Branchial cleft cyst
Epidermal cyst
Dermoid cyst
Benign Cystic Teratoma
Thyroglossal Tract Cyst