Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/150

Click to flip

150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is alternative medicine?
a practice of medicine which encompasses various techniques which have not necessarily been studied or proven to be effective
Why is much of alternative medicine rejected by the medical community?
safety concerns
efficacy concerns
What is homeopathy?
a system of medicine in which practicioners use highly diluted substances.
What is the belief in homeopathy?
the change in the water molecule structure after dilution allows for healing
What is the belief of dilution in homeopathy?
the higher the dilution the more potent the remedy
What is succussion?
homeopathic remedies that are shaken - releases the "Vital Energy"
What is meditation?
identified relaxation, concentration, and altered sense of awareness, a supsension of logical thought and the maintenance of a self-observing attitude are the behavioral components of meditation.
Used in stress and pain reduction
What is the goal of yoga?
to improve health and the liberation of all worldly suffering
What is Tai Chi (chaun)?
used for defense and health benefits.
Most practice solo routines called "forms" which are typically slow movements.
Focusing on these slow movements bring about a state of mental calm and clarity
What does Qi Gong literally mean?
Qi - breathing air, gas or vapor
Gong - achievement of results
Why treat the thorax?
unimpeded physiologic motion of thoracic cage is important for:
- sufficient CV supply
- Adequate venous drainage and return
- Efficient lymphatic drainage
- Neural regulatory influences of muscles
- balanced beta-adrenergic tone
What does the PNS - vagus stimulation do on the lungs?
increased secretions/expectoration
bronchiole constriction
What dose the SNS stimulation/tone do on the lungs?
Thick secretions/decreases expectoration
Increases vasoconstriction of vessels
Bronchiole dilation
Adrenergic tone to myocardium (inotrophy and chronotropy)
What kind of techniques are the best for thoracic disease tx?
soft tissue and indirect are best
direct tx's to SNS/PNS, myofascial and respiratory muscles
What does Auerbach's plexus do in the gut?
increases motility
What does Meissner's plexus do in the gut?
increases secretions/blood flow
What effect does the PNS have on the gut?
increases motility (S2-4)
What effect does the SNS have on the gut?
hyperstimulation decreases bowl motility (T1-L2)
What is the radiological sign of an ileus?
step ladder small intestinal gas
What is the radiological sign of colon cancer on x-ray?
napkin ring obstruction
When do you want to do Chapman's reflexes on a pt (in regards to when during the tx, what order?)
last
What is the goal of tx techniques in lymphatics?
increase reabsorption of fluids/cleansing
Increased circulation
What is Qi Gong?
Set of breathing exercises along with both physical and mental training methods designed to help the body and the mind
What is the theory of rolfing?
bound up fascia or connective tissue often restricts opposing muscles from functioning in concert with one another
What is the practice of rolfing?
To separate bound up fascia by deeply separating the fibers manually to loosen them and allow effective movement patterns
What was rolfing originally called?
Postural Relief
What is the mechanism of reiki?
transferring healing energy through the hands.
What is the healing energy in Reiki called?
Ki
What are the 3 degrees of Reiki?
1st degree: practitioner can heal himself and others
2nd degree: able to heal others distantly using special symbols
Master/Teacher: able to teach others the discipline
What is process of acupuncture?
using/placing needles into the body which can be manipulated in order to cause a positive therapeutic effect.
What is acupuncture used for?
relieving pain and swelling
reduce sx of nausea/others
Asthma, depression, dementia, IBS, insomnia, headaches, smoking cessation
What is moxibustion?
the process of burning dried mugwort in a flake form or in the rolled (cigar) form to heat the needles for acupuncture
Describe Yin and Yang/Zang Fu.
Zang organs are solid and called Yin (liver, lungs, heart, spleen, kidney)
Fu organs are hollow and called yang (intestines, stomach, gall bladder, bladder)
What are meridians?
a system of channels in which "Qi" flows
What is mesmerized / hypnotherapy?
trance and healing achieved by channeling a force called - animal magnetism
What is hypnosis?
induces hypnotic state in clients to increase motivation or alter behavior patterns
Initially subjects are tested to determine degree of physical and emotional suggestibility
What are some uses for hypnotherapy?
anxiety/subclinical depression
pain management
stress
insomnia
habit disorders - smoking
Does hypnotherapy work?
The evidence supporting the effectiveness of hypnosis in alleviating chronic pain associated with cancer seems strong
Who uses muscle testing?
chiropractors and energy healers
What is muscle testing?
uses the strength of a muscular contraction as the indicator - deltoid most commonly used.
(we can also monitor the CRI)
Why is there an increase in heat when there is a change in structure (Acute/Chronic)?
because there is a decrease of blow flow to an area and because of that there is less blood flow to cool the tissue from its metabolic activity
What is the "etheric body"?
the energetic template for our physical body. The blueprint of our material form.
How many chakras are there?
7
What has OMM been proven to improve in hospital settings?
improves pulmonary function tests, nitrogen washout, oxygenation, and ventilation/perfusion mismatching.
OMT decreases antibiotic usage and hospital duratin.
What are the muscles of respiration?
SCM
Scalenes
Intercostals
Diaphragm
QL
What does the Vagus Nerve do for the upper GI tract?
gastric motility and nausea
What is the SNS innervation of the respiratory system?
T2-4
upper thoracic and cervical chain ganglia
What is the PNS innervation of the respiratory system?
Vagus nerve
What are the levels of the celiac ganglion? What does it innervate?
T5-9 (digestion)
Stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
What are the levels of the superior mesenteric ganglion? What does it innervate?
T10-L1 (absorption)
small intestine
What are the levels of the inferior mesenteric ganglion? What does it innervate?
T12-L2 (elimination)
Colon
What is the upper GI PNS innervation?
Vagus nerve
What is the lower GI PNS innervation?
Sacral splanchnic nerves S2-4
Post-MI, what is the hospital sequence of treatment?
1. serial cardiac enzymes (set of 3): troponin, CK-MB
2. EKG = may show ST-elevation in 3 contiguous leads
3. CXR, Echo
4. Oxygen, Morphine, Nitro, Aspirin (MONA)
What are the OMT goals for post-MI treatment?
Balance autonomic tone to the myocardium
Reduce viscerosomatic relfexes to prevent further arrhythmias, heart failure, and HoTN induced ischemia
Restore lymphatic flow from the heart
How is the pericardium attached to the sternum?
superior and inferior sternopericardial ligaments
What causes a psoas spasm?
the ureters adhere directly to the peritoneium and descend along the medial aspect of the psoas fascia in the abdomen. In times of inflammation of the kidney, ureter, and bladder can often produce a reciprocal psoas spasm.
The tendon of what muscle forms the floor of the femoral triangle?
iliopsoas
What transverse process is being monitored during the Iliopsoas release - Still technique?
L2
What signs strongly suggest bowel obstruction?
Surgical scars, tympani to percussion, and high-pitched peristalsis or borborygmi in rushes present
What does severe pain in a patient with a silent abdomen who is lying as still as possible suggest?
peritonitis
What does shock and vaginal bleeding in a pregnant woman suggest?
ruptured ectopic pregnancy
What does back pain with shock suggest, especially if there is a tender, pulsatile mass?
AAA
What is Grey Turner's Sign?
ecchymoses of the CVA's
What signs strongly suggest bowel obstruction?
Surgical scars, tympani to percussion, and high-pitched peristalsis or borborygmi in rushes present
What does severe pain in a patient with a silent abdomen who is lying as still as possible suggest?
peritonitis
What does shock and vaginal bleeding in a pregnant woman suggest?
ruptured ectopic pregnancy
What does back pain with shock suggest, especially if there is a tender, pulsatile mass?
AAA
What is Grey Turner's Sign?
ecchymoses of the CVA's
What should be on the DDx of a new onset headache in a pt with cancer, lyme disease, or HIV?
mets
meningoencephalitis
opportunistic infections
What is the 5-4-3-2-1 rule for migraine dx?
5 or more attacks (for migraine with aura only 2 attacks are sufficient for dx)
4 hours to 3 days in duration
2 or more of the following:
- U/L
- Pulsating
- Moderate or severe pain intensity
- Aggravation by or causing avoidance of routine physical activity
1 or more of the following:
- N &/or V
- Sensitivity to both light and sound
When was osteopathy founded? What is the saying?
June 22, 1874
"I flung to the breeze the banner of Osteopathy"
When was the 1st class at American School of Osteopathy?
1892
When did AT Still die?
1917
What OMM technique dramatically reduced morbidity/mortality during the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic?
Rib raising
Who do we blame for giving us cranial techniques?
William Garner Sutherland, DO
Who founded Muscle Energy?
Fred Mitchell, DO
Who founded Counterstrain?
Lawrence Jones, DO
Who founded FPR?
Stanley Schiowitz, DO
Who rediscovered AT Still Techniques?
Richard van Buskirk, DO
What does TART stand for?
tissue texture changes
asymmetry
restricted motion
tenderness
What is the motion of C0-C1?
Atypical motion: sidebending and rotation are opposite and in non-neutral position
What is the motion of C1-C2?
Motion of the atlas on the axis. Atypical motion - pure rotation
How is the anatomic barrier tested?
passively
How is the physiologic barrier tested?
actively
What is active motion testing
pt is doing the motion.
Quantitative
What is passive motion testing?
dr is doing the motion
Qualitative (palpating)
Is cranial direct or indirect?
Indirect for adults
Direct for infants
Is Still Technique direct or indirect?
Indirect to direct
Is FPR direct or indirect?
Indirect
Which are the true ribs?
1-7
Which are the false ribs?
8-10
Which are the floating ribs?
11-12
What motion do ribs 1-5 have?
pump handle, AP diameter expansion with respiration
What motion do ribs 6-10 have?
bucket handle motion, lateral diameter expansion with respirations
What motion do ribs 11-12 have?
caliper motion
What are Chapman's points?
Neuro-lymphatic tissue texture abnormalities that are reflections of visceral dysfunction or pathology (viscerosomatic reflexes).
Manifested by palpatory findings of firm "pea size" nodules
How do you name for a sacral diagnosis?
rotation first
axis second
How is the seated flexion test related to naming for sacral dysfunction?
Seated flexion test is typically positive on opposite side of axis
Describe cranial/sacral flexion.
1. midline bones flex
2. paired bones externally rotate
3. SBS rises
4. sacral base moves posterior/counternutation
5. respiratory inhalation encourages flexion
Describe cranial/sacral extension.
1. midline bones extend
2. paired bones internally rotate
3. SBS lowers
4. sacral base moves anterior/nutation
5. respiratory exhalation encourages extension
How is cranial torsion named?
for high greater wing of the sphenoid
How is cranial sidebending rotation named?
for the side of the produced convexity. Convexity side is rotated toward the feet
How is a vertical cranial strain named?
for the position of the basisphenoid.
Superior/inferior shearing of the SBS
What is a vertical cranial strain associated with?
trauma such as an uppercut
What is a lateral cranial strain associated with?
named for the position of the basisphenoid caused by trauma such as a hook. Seen in infants with a "parallelogram shaped head"
What is cranial compression?
no motion, caused by trauma
What motion is not included in the spencer technique?
external rotation (worried about dislocation)
What are the grades of sprain?
Grade 1 = stretch of a ligament
Grade 2 = partial tear
Grade 3 = complete tear
What is the triad of O'Donahue?
Pop goes the ACL, medial meniscus, and medial collateral ligament
Which test is the most sensitive to test for ACL tear?
Lachman
Where is pain localized in a torn meniscus?
localized to the joint line and popliteal region with knee flexion
What are the tests for Meniscus injury?
Apley's grind test
McMurray's test
Childress test
What ligaments of the ankle are injured with inversion?
ATF
CFL
PTF
What ligament is injured with an eversion ankle sprain?
deltoid
What is the action of the supraspinatus? What test is used?
Abduction
Jobe's Test
What is the action of the infraspinatus?
External rotation
What is the action of the teres minor?
external rotation
What is the action of the subscapularis muscle?
internal rotation
What does Speed's test test for?
Biceps tendon
What does Hawkin's and Neer's test test for?
impingement (tendonitis, burstitis)
What does Yergeson's test test for?
Long Head of the Biceps
What does the Cross Arm Test test for?
AC joint
What does Serratus Anterior do ?
protraction of the scapula
What does the Patrick's test test for?
Hip joint pathology
What does the straight leg raise test for?
nerve root impingement
What does the thomas test test for?
iliopsoas
What does the Thompson test test for?
achilles tendon rupture
What does the Ober's Test test for?
IT band
What does the Stork Test test for?
Spondylolysis - facet joint pathology
What does Trendelenberg test for?
glut med
What is the most common cause of LBP?
mechanical, muscle imbalance
What are 50% of cases of cauda equina due to?
secondary to tumor
What is the main cause of spinal stenosis?
degeneration and remodeling caused by the normal aging process/arthritis
What are the sx of spinal stenosis?
chronically progressive
Often B/L and poorly localized
Pain radiates to buttocks, thighs, legs
Worsened with extension (stand, walk)
Improves with flexion (sit, stoop)
Stopping ambulation may not improve sx
What are risk factors for PVD claudication?
Smoking, DM, Hyperlipidemia, FMHx
What are the sx of PVD claudication?
Uni- or B/L, poorly localized
Worse with any LE exertion
Stopping ambulation will improve sx (like angina)
Physical exam reveals diminished pulses and capillary refill with cyanotic cool extremities
What is spondylolithesis?
slippage of one vertebral body onto the next
What is spondylolysis?
a separation of the pars interarticularis of the vertebral arch
Where is spondylolithesis most commonly located?
L5/S1
What is spondylolithesis associated with?
hyperextension injries
When is pain worse in spondylolithesis?
with extension and compressive loads
What is facet joint syndrome?
pain in the back, in the facet region with no radiation below the knee
What test do you use for facet joint syndrome?
stork test
What is facet trophism?
they don't line up properly
What is fibromyalgia?
characterized by diffuse aches, stiffness, and fatigue
Diagnosis of exclusion
At least 11/18 tenderpoints present for greater than 3 months duration for dx
What needs to be ruled out before making a dx of fibromyalgia?
thyroid disease, lupus, RA, malignancy, infectious disease, etc.
What worsens the sx of fibromyalgia?
stress
cold
physical activity
What causes the fibromyalgia sleep disturbance?
alpha wave intrusion into non-REM delta wave sleep
What are some associated syndromes to Fibromyalgia?
IBS, depression, headaches