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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Deuteronomy 6:4
"Here, O Israel, the Lord your God, the Lord is one"
"The Lord your God, the Lord is one"
What does interpretation 1 mean?
("Lord is one")
It is a statement about the nature of God – he is unique, indivisible, does not consist of multiple deities
Why is interpretation 1 good?
("Lord is one")
This is the translation supported by the Septuagint (Greek word: 'eis' = 'one')
Why is interpretation 1 bad?
("Lord is one")
The second “the LORD” is not really needed
“The LORD is our God, the LORD alone”
What does interpretation 2 mean?
("Lord alone")
It argues that the Lord is the only God, and all other apparent gods are just false.
Why is interpretation 2 good?
("Lord alone")
Supported by Zechariah 14:9 "On that day there will be one Lord, and his name the one name."
Why is interpretation 2 bad?
("Lord alone")
It is VERY RARE for the words “YHVH eloheinu” to be translated as “the LORD our God”
“The LORD our God is one LORD”
What does interpretation 3 mean?
("Lord is one God")
It argues that God is made up of one being, rather than many beings.
What is the point of interpretation 3?
("Lord is one God")
In ancient times, there were different gods for different places – there were Seths from 11 different cities in Ancient Egypt.
Why is interpretation 3 good?
("Lord is one God")
It makes the most sense from a translation perspective.
Deuteronomy 6:7
“speak of these words when you lie down and when you get up”
Orthodox Jews + The Shema
Orthodox Jews are required to recite the Shema as part of both their morning and evening prayers.
What is the significance of reciting the Shema?
Why do Jews recite the Shema?
By reciting the Shema, Jews are recognising God's authority as ruler of Israel.
What happens if Jews do not recite the Shema?
By not reciting the Shema Jews are effectively rejecting God's rule.
Levenson on Interpretation 2
("Lord alone")
“The Lord alone” translation reflects the Covenental Monotheism of the time
Levenson on Interpretation 1
("Lord is one")
“The Lord is one” translation reflects the Philosophical Monotheism of our time
Levenson + Shema Commentaries
“The Lord alone” translation is supported by the commentaries of Ibn Ezra and Rashbam.
Levenson + Rashbam
Rashbam: “'Hashem alone' – in Him alone we will serve, and will not add any other god to serve him”
What happens in The Aqedah?
God tells Abraham to sacrifice Isaac – he almost does it, but God stops him just before.
How does von Rad try to understand the Aqedah?
He employs techniques of Narrative Criticism to better understand the text.
What motifs in the text does von Rad see in the Aqedah?
von Rad - Isaac Quotation 1
“Above all one must consider Isaac, who is much more than simply a foil for Abraham”
von Rad - Isaac Quotation 2
“Isaac is the child of promise”
von Rad - Interpretation Quotation
“a story like this is open to temptation and to whatever thoughts the reader is inspired”
How does Levenson understand the Aqedah?
Focus on Jewish tradition of obedience to God
What does Levenson think is the most important part of the Aqedah?
The Task of Abraham – his faith is being tested, sacrificing his son to God.
What does Levenson use to understand the Aqedah?
Uses interpretations of the Midrash, and early Jewish Commentaries (Bachya ben Asher and Rabbi Yose)
How does Levenson see Abraham's obedience in the Aqedah?
Repetition of “Here I am” - emphasises Abraham's obedience (Hebrew 'binneni' = 'ready')
Levenson's BIG QUESTION on Obedience in the Aqedah
Abraham's Obedience – because he has faith in God's promise that Isaac will not be harmed, or because he has blind faith in God?
What do Gunn and Fewell focus on in the Aqedah?
Focus on the moral character of Abraham in the context of his life.
Gunn and Fewell - Abraham + Sarah
Abraham sacrificed his first wife Sarah to strangers on two occasions.
Gunn and Fewell - Abraham + Hagar
Abraham sacrificed his second wife Hagar, first to affliction and then to ostracism.
Gunn and Fewell - Abraham + Ishmael
He sacrificed his first born son Ishmael to the wilds of the desert.
Gunn and Fewell on Abraham
Abraham = “a man who fears, a man in need of grace”
Gunn and Fewell on Abraham 2
Abraham appears emotionless – no hesitation to obey God
Definition of Prophet
Speaking on God's Behalf
(not necessarily about the future - could also refer to the past or present)
GOAL of looking at OT Prophecy
Finding the Authoritative Prophetic Message
How do we find the Authoritative Prophetic Message?
By removing Layers of Interpretation to reach the Pure Layer of Truth
3 ways Jeremiah passes on God's message:
1. Writing on a scroll
2. Speaking in poetry (ch. 2-6)
3. Prose Sermons (ch. 7)
The Pure Original Prophecy
Where AUTHORITY and TRUTH are found.
The Final Text of Prophecy
Some argue this is the actual source of AUTHORITY - this is the version which God intended to reach us.
What is the context of the language of Prophecy?
In what form does the DIVINE WORD come to Jeremiah from the Lord?
In Human Words
Prophecy appears in the First Person from Verse 4...
"the word of the Lord came to me"
"the Lord put out his hand and touched my mouth"
What does the Prophecy feature FOR Jeremiah?
Words Of Assurance
Words of Assurance from God to Jeremiah...
"do not be afraid for I am with you to assist you"
(Jeremiah will face a lifetime of opposition as a prophet)
What kind of power does Jeremiah not have?
Military and Political Power
What kind of power does Jeremiah have?
Moral and Spiritual Power
What kind of power does Jeremiah have?
Example of SOFT POWER
2 Kings 2:12 - Elijah goes up into heaven. He is described by Elisha as being in "the chariots of Israel"
Jeremiah 18
God tells Jeremiah to go and see the potter
Jeremiah sees that the clay is formed into the shape the potter wants
IMAGERY - symbolises God's divine power
Language of Prophecy Example
When someone is about to be hit by a car, you shout "you're going to be run over" - what you mean is "move out of the way or else you will be run over"
Jeremiah 7:3
A challenge to the people to amend their ways
Jeremiah 7:4
A warning against the false words of others (includes first direct quotation from God)
Jeremiah 7:5
Hebrew Prophecy talks about justice for the least of society
Jeremiah 7:6
An example of the least of society
Jeremiah 7:7
A condition - if you the people do X, then they will receive Y
Jeremiah 7:8
Again a warning against deceptive words
Jeremiah 7:9
A list of forbidden things
Jeremiah 7:10
A second direct quotation ("we are safe")
Jeremiah 7:12
God describes a precedent - in Shiloh, they disobeyed God and got owned
Jeremiah 7:14
They will lose everything if they disobey God.