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178 Cards in this Set

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Salivary Amylase breaksdown:
Carbohydrates
4 kcalories/gram
Carbohydrates & Proteins
9 kcalories/gram
Fat
7 kcalories/gram
Alcohol
Glucose is transported into cells using which transporter?
GLUT transporters
Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the:
mouth through the activity of salivary amylase.
Protein digestion starts in the:
stomach.
Lipid digestion begins in the:
mouth with assistance of ligual lipases.
DRI
dietary reference intakes
EAR
estimate average requirement
RDA
Recommended dietary allowance
AI
Adequate Intake
UL
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
If a population consumed the estimate average requirement for Vitamin B1, what percent of the population would be deficient in B1?
50%
List the macronutrients.
Carbohdyrates, proteins, & fats
What is the engery density of fat?
9 kcalories / gram
If a serving of milk contains about 300 mg of calcium and is equal to 85 kcalories what is the nutrient density of milk?
3.5 mg of calcium per kcalorie
List examples of empty kcalorie foods?
Soda, high-fructose beverages, and etc.
What factors dictate food choice?
personal perference
habit
ethnic heritage
convenience
emotional comfort
values
body weight and image
health benefits
What is the DRI for all the macronutrients?
Carbohydrate = 45-65%
Fat = 20-35%
Protein = 10-35% (0.8 g/kg of body weight/day)
Is the amount of trans fatty acids required on food labels?
YES!
The percent of daily intakes of nutrients found on food labels is based on:
the RDA value of given nutrients.
What does the word "reduced fat" mean?
25% less fat compared to the original product.
If a product contains the words "sugar free" what does it mean?
It means that the product has less than 5 kal/serving.
Atikins Diet
Low carbohdyrate diet
Problems associated with the Atkins diet?
Increase risk of heart disease, fatigue, weakness, and irritability.
Blood type diet
is based primarily on a persons blood type.
Protein Power
High protein / low carbohydrates
South beach diet
It utilizes the glycemic index of food. Typically fruits and vegetables are eliminated.
Sugar Busters
NO sugar
Dr. Dean Ornish diet program:
has been scientifically shown to reverse atherosclerotic plaque formation.
Bioavailability is defined as:
the availability of a vitamin in the intestines versus the amount absorbed.
What are some factors that affect bioavailability?
1. digestion/absorption
2. food-nutrient interaction
3. food preparation
4. nutrient source (natural vs. synthetic)
What are the three forms of vitamin A?
Retinol, Retinal, & Reinoic acid
Vitamin A foods
Liver, dark green leafy vegetables, yellow-orange vegetables, fruit and fortified foods.
Functions of Vitamin A
Vision, Reproduction, immune function, cell proliferation, and cell signaling
Vitamin A is absorbed in the diet as:
retyinyl esteres
Night blindness
A deficiency of vitamin A
Xerophthalmia
A deficiency of vitamin A
Keratomalacia
A deficiency of vitamin A
Vitamin A toxicity
1. Teratogenic
2. liver disease
3. dryness
4. erythema
5. hair loss
6. headache
7. vomiting
8. skin peeling
Does sunscreen decrease the bodies ability to synthesize vitamin D?
YES
What factors are responsible for a decrease in vitamin D synthesis?
obesity, aging, and a dietary deficiency.
Significant sources of vitamin D include:
fatty fish, milk, milk based products, and fortified foods.
Rickets disease
A deficiency of vitamin D
Osteomalacia
A deficiency of vitamin D
Hypocalcemia can be caused by:
a deficiency in vitamin D
Vitamin D Toxicity symptoms
hypercalcemia
hyperphosphatemia
calcification of bones
constipation
polyuria
kidney stones
Tocopherols
Vitamin E
(True or False) Vitamin E is an antioxidant.
True
Significant foods sources of vitamin E include:
oils, salad dressings, mayonnaise, and nuts.
(True or False) Deficiencies in Vitamin E are rare.
True
(True or False) Vitamin E is transferred across the placenta.
False, Vitamin E is inadequately transferred across the placenta.
(True or False) Vitamin K is responsible for assisting in the coagulation pathway.
True
Significant food sources of vitamin K include:
Green vegetables, kale, collards, spinach, parsley, broccoli and letuce.
(True or False) Newborns are typically deficient in vitamin K.
True
What laboratory tests can be used to assess vitamin K status?
Prothrombin time or plasma/serum concentrations of phylloquinone (vitamin K).
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
A, D, E & K
What are the water soluble vitamins?
All the B vitamins and vitamin C
Thiamin can be typically found in which foods?
pork,nuts, legumes, fortified cereals, and whole wheat
(True or False) Thiamin is temperature sensentitive.
True
Thiamin-megaloblastic anemia is responsible is caused by:
a deficiency in the thiamin transporter (SLC19A2)
Beriberi
Thiamin deficiency
Necrotizing encephalomyelopathy
Thiamin Deficiency
Thiamin deficiency symptoms includes:
1. mental confusion
2. ataxia
3. tachycardia
4. edema
5. peripheral paralysis
6. cyanosis
What labs would you order if you suspected a thiamin deficiency?
1. Erythrocyte transketolase test
2. blood & urinary levels of thiamin
3. pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate levels
Vitamin B2
Riboflavin
Significant sources of Riboflavin include:
milk, milk products, meats, liver, and fortified grains.
Ariboflavinosis
Riboflavin deficiency
Riboflavin deficiency symptoms include:
skin lesions, segorrhic dermatitis, photophobia, cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis, anema, neuropathy, and stunted growth
If you suspected ariboflavinosis what laboratory test would you request?
1. Glutathione reductase activity
2. urinary excretion of riboflavin
3. Riboflavin concentrations in RBC's
Which vitamin can be synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan?
Niacin
Significant sources of Niacin include:
meats, poultry, fish, legumes, and fortified grains
Niacin is absorped in the:
small intestines
(True or False) Most of Niacin is excreted in urine.
False, Niacin is reabsorbed in the kidneys and very little is excreted.
Pellagra
Niacin deficiency
A corn based diet may result in:
a deficiency in Niacin, because corn contains very little tryptophan and niacin in corn is unaccessible.
Niacin Deficiency symptoms include:
GI problems, wekaness, lassitude, anorexia, indigestion, dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia.
Niacin Flush:
is caused by niacin toxicities.
Food sources of Biotin include:
liver, baker's yeast, wheat and eggs.
Biotin deficiencies results in the following symptoms:
dermatitis, alopecia, hypotonia, ataxia, and developmental delay.
Pantothenic acid is required in the diet for:
fatty acid synthesis
ketone body synthesis
oxidation of pyruvate
amino acid metabolism
Dietary sources of pantothenic acid include:
fish, poultry, milk, milk based products, legumes, seeds, and potatoes.
(True or False) A pantothenic acid deficiency is rate.
True
Seborrheic dermatitis, microcytic anemia, epileptiform convulsions, depression, and confusion are symptoms of:
Vitamin B 6 deficiency
(True or False) Supplements of Vitamin B6 have a higher bioavailability than food sources.
True
(True or False) Vitamin B6 may reach toxic levels when a person is taking a supplement.
True
Vitamin B6 toxicity symptoms include:
Depression, fatigue, irritability, headache, nerve damage, and skin lesions.
If you suspect a patient is suffering from a vitamin B6 deficiency what laboratory test would you request?
1. Plasma PLP test
2. RBC Asparate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase activities
Megablastic anemia due to pregnancy is caused by:
a deficiency in folic acid.
List foods that contain folic acid?
green leafy vegetables, legumes, and fortified foods.
(True of False) The bioavailability of folic acid from supplements is higher than for natural foods.
True
(True or False) Folic acid is responsible for the biochemical mechanism of one carbon transfer reactions.
True
Spina bifida:
was decreased by increasing the amount of folic acid in the diet.
RDA for folic acid during pregnancy
600 ug of folic acid/day (400 ug from supplement & 200 ug from food)
pernicious anemia
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Significant sources of vitamin B12 in the diet include:
milk, milk products, seafood, fortified grains.
(True or False) Vitamin C is a reducing agent.
True
Signifiant food sources of vitamin C include:
fruits and vegetables (cantaloupe, kiwi, strawberries, lemons, oranges, broccoli, red pepper, cauliflower, spinach, tomatoes, brussels sprouts, asparagus, and fortified foods)
Scurvy
Vitamin C deficiency
Vitamin C increases the absorption of __________.
Iron
Nutritional assessment can be used for which types of patients?
overweight patients, underweight, patients with chronic disease, infants, children, low income patients, geriatric patients, and patients that consume non-traditional diets.
Anthropometrics includes:
height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and percent body fat.
Biochemical data includes:
laboratory test like Albumin, ferritin, prealbumin, and total protein.
Clinical signs includes
skin, hair, eyes, neck, thorax, abdomen, and etc.
Diet Assessment is:
an assessment of a patient's diet.
%UBW
(Current Weight/Normal Weight) X 100
Significant sources of sodium in American's diet?
Processed foods
Salt shaker
Natural foods
The DASH diet
A dietary approach to stop hypertension restricts sodium to less than 2.5 g/day and has been clinically shown to reduce hypertension.
Significant sources of Potassium include:
fresh fruits, vegetables, meats, and milk products.
Absorption of calcium occurs in which organ?
Small intestines
(True or False) Calcium absorption occurs in basic environments.
False, acidic enviornments
Name the two types of calcium supplements?
calcium carbonate & calcium citrate
List the dietary sources of calcium?
dark green vegetables, sardines, clams, milk, fortified foods
(True or False) Excessive fiber consumption impedes calcium absorption.
True
(True or False) Iron supplements and calcium supplements should be taken at the same time.
False, Calcium impedes the absorption of iron and therefore should be taken at different times during the day.
Phosphorus absorption occurs in which area of the small intestines?
the proximal portion of the duodenum
The largest absorption of magnesium occurs in which region of the small intestines?
the jejunum
(True or False) Vitamin C increases the absorption of Iron.
True
Iron is typically found in what food items?
liver, seafood, meat, egg yolks, and iron skillets.
Which vegetable is primarily deficient in iron?
Corn
What typically causes iron induced anemia?
injury, hemorhage, ilness (parasites), lack of iron in the diet, and being a female athlete.
Zince absorption is increased by what?
1. glucose/lactose
2. soy protein
3. red wine
Zinc deficiency
short stature, hypogonadims, hypogeusia, delayed wound healing, alopecia, altered immune function.
Goiter
is caused by an iodine deficiency
Iodine is found in which major food item?
salt
What is the risk factors of being obese and being pregnant?
1) Obesity is linked to 1st term miscarriages
2) Obesity is linked to increased risk of caesarean
3) obesity is linked to childhood obesity.
Critical Period
is the first 17-30 days after egg fertilization.
The protein needs during pregnancy
1.1 g / kg of body weight/day
The energy needs during the 2nd trimester
an extra ~340 kcal/day
The energy needs during the 3rd trimester
an extra ~ 450 kcal/day
The RDA for folic acid during pregnancy
600 ug/day
Can Iron needs be met by diet alone during pregnancy?
NO, the amount of iron needed during pregnancy is greater than the amount provided by food alone.
Pica
The consumption of non-nutritious foods like glue, cardboard, ice, coal, dirt, and etc.
Pica often results in:
iron deficiency
What are risk factors for iron deficiency?
1. Race (African American)
2. Living in Rural area
3. Pica
If a woman has a BMI of 23 approximately how much weight should she gain during pregnancy?
25-35 lbs
(True or False) Alcohol should be avoided during pregnancy.
True, alcohol can cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
(True of False) Caffeine is completly safe during pregnancy.
False, recent research has shown that caffeine can cause spontaneous abortions particular in the first trimester.
What molecule commonly found in mackerel, tilefish, & swordfish should be avoided during pregnancy?
Methyl Mercury
What B vitamin has been shown to reduce or eliminate nausea and vomiting problems associated with pregnancy?
Vitamin B6
How many more calories are recommended during lactation?
500/day
How many calories is required to synthesize approximately 100 ml of breast milk?
About 85 calories.
A 9 pound baby boy was born five months ago, approximately how much should the baby weight today during his infant checkup?
18 lbs
How much sunlight is recommended to meet the body's need of vitamin D.
Approximately 30 min/week without clothes or 2 hrs/week with clothes.
(True or False) Breast feeding decreases a person risk of being obese later in life.
True
(True or False) Cow's milk should be avoided prior to 1 year of age.
True
Milk induced anemia
is caused by the consumption of milk prior to 1 year of age.
Lactoferrin
an iron binding protein found in breast milk.
Which nutrients are not supplied by the breast milk?
Vitmain D and Fluoride
What is the minimum age infants can consume solid foods?
4-6 months
A 6-year-old child should consume approximately how many kcalories?
about 2/3 of a normal adult diet or 1333 calories
(True or False) The RDA for calcium for adolescents is increased from 1000 mg to 1300 mg/day.
True
Sarcopenia
Loss of muscle mass
(True of False) Energy needs decrease with age.
True by about 20%.
(True or False) Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in patients with atrophic gastritis.
True
An inadequate antioxidant intake is mostly caused by:
a poor intake of fruits and vegetables.
List some of the comorbidities associated with obesity?
Asthma, Diabetes, Heart disease, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and etc.
BMI
Weight in kg / height in meters squared=
kg/m2
BMI of 32
Obese
BMI of 18.4
Underweight
BMI 24
Normal
BMI 26
Overweight
BMI of 40
Morbid obesity
BMI 50
Super Morbid obesity
How many excess calories does it take to gain 1 lb of body fat?
Approximately 3, 555 excess calories
List the treatment options for treating obesity?
1. DIetary approaches
2. Altered physical activity
3. behavior therapy
4. pharmacotherapy
5. surgery
6. combination therapy
List some goals for trying to get your patients to loose weight?
1. Try to achieve a weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week
2. Set a goal of 10% from baseline
3. Cut calories by about 500 calories per day
Saw Palmetto
Used to treat enlarged prostate, prostate cancer, hair loss, and underactive bladder.
St. John's Wort
Depression
Niacin
High Cholesterol & Pellagra
Omega 3 Fatty acids
Hypertension, CVD, & high TG
Cranberry
Urinary tract infections
Echinacea
is thought to treat colds, but very little research has shown beneficial results.
Red Yeast Rice
High Cholesterol, CVD, & Diabetes
Uva Ursi
Cystitis
If a woman had a BMI of 18.5 how much weight should she gain during her first trimester?
5 lbs
If a woman had a BMI of 26 how much weight should she gain during her first trimester?
2 lbs