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17 Cards in this Set

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Descriptive research

Involves measuring a variable or set of variables as they exist naturally. Not concerned with the relationship between variables. Not able to infer cause and effect.

Observational research design

The researcher observes and systematically records the behaviour of individuals for the purpose of describing behaviour. Behavioural observation: direct observation and recording behaviours. Two measurement problems with this approach. Behaviour must not be influenced by the observer. Conceal the observer or habituate the participant to the presence of the observer. Interpretation by the observer, Develop a list of behaviour categories, use well trained observers, use multiple observers.

Frequency method

Counting the instances of each specific behaviour that occurred during a fixed time observation period.

Duration method

Recording how much time an individual spends engaged in a specific behaviour during a fixed time observation period.

Interval method

Dividing the observation period into a series of intervals and then recording whether a specific behaviour occurs during each interval.

Naturalistic observation

A researcher observes behaviour in a natural setting as unobtrusively as possible. Also called nonparticipant observation. Provides insight into real world behaviour, high external validity. Limitations: time consuming, make sure not to influence the behaviour.

Participant Observation

A researcher does not observe from afar, but instead they interact with the participants. Needed in situations in which inconspicuous observation is not possible.

Contrived Observation

Also called structure observation. The observation of behaviour in settings arranged specifically to facilitate the occurrence of specific behaviours, A compromise between the purely descriptive naturalistic observation and the manipulative field experiments. Advantage: do not have to wait for the behaviour to occur. Disadvantage: because the environment is less natural, the behaviour may be as well.

Content analysis

The measurement process used when researchers measure behaviours in books, movies, etc.

Archival research

Recording behaviours from historical records.

Survey research design

A research study that uses a survey to obtain a description of a particular group of individuals. Develop questions, assembly into a well constructed survey, determine participants, determine how the survey will be administered.

Open ended question

Introduces a topic and allows participants to respond in their own words. Gives flexibility, different interpretations, answers may be difficult to analyze.

Restricted questions

Present the participant with a limited number of response alternatives, thereby restricting the response possibilities. Easy to analyze.

Rating scale questions

Requires the participant to respond by selecting a numerical value on a predetermined scale. Likert scale: A range from very positive to very negative. The two end categories are identified with labels called anchors.

Response set

Whenever the questions all have the same choices for responding. Participants tend to use the same response for most questions.

Semantic differential

Presents pairs of opposing adjectives and asks the participant to identify the location between them that best describes a particular individual.

Case study design

A study of a single individual for the purpose of obtaining a description of the individual.