Two Types Of Quantitative Research Designs

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Introduction
Research is used to collect, analyze and interpret information systematically, to increase an understanding about a particular phenomenon (Sheperis, Young, & Daniels, 2010). Quantitative research uses statistical methods, instead of theory or logic, to test a hypothesis. In essence, quantitative research methods or designs, are used to observe and explain something that happens, used to collect and gather information, and analyze the information. Two types of quantitative research designs, used between groups, are the pretest-posttest control group design and within groups, the crossover design.
According to Sheperis, Young, & Daniels (2010) the experimental research design is an attempt to maintain control and or alter one variable
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Another benefit of this design is the researcher is able to see if one group, both groups and or neither group, changed over time (Sheperis, Young, & Daniels, 2010).
Disadvantage is even though, internal validity is improved, and external validity suffers because there is no way to measure or test if the pretesting process has any influence on the results. If testing children, it is difficult to say the results will encompass all children. Essentially, it is hard to generalize. Another disadvantage to this design, is with the use of random assignment there could be a disproportionate group of males to females tested and does not signify the ratio of males to females in the population study.
On the other hand, in social science, psychology and or education, the crossover design, can be used to observe the effects of two treatments within a single group, ex. peer mentoring and individual counseling (Sheperis, Young, & Daniels, 2010). In essence, half of the participants receive a control treatment followed by an experimental treatment, whereas the other half experience the treatments reversed. After the first intervention, the group is accessed and midway through the observations the group is accessed and crossover for the other intervention. At the end of the study, observations are made to access a change based on an intervention.
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Group peer mentoring or individual counseling), specific to the different interventions or treatment types cannot be compared. In essence, the researcher, will be unable to determine the specific intervention type (ex. group therapy, or individual counseling, etc.), was it one intervention, a combination of either interventions or some other confounding variable that effected the change. According to Creswell (2005) as reported in Sheperis, Young, & Daniels (2010), a means of controlling the threats to internal validity is to counterbalance the crossover design. Essentially, randomly assign group 1 for one intervention, and group 2 for the other and compare the

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