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260 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Employing Military Capabilities
• Operational and Strategic Art
• Unit, Air Force, Joint, and Coalition Capabilities
• Non-adversarial Crisis Response
Enterprise Perspective
• Enterprise Structure and Relationships
• Government Organization and Processes
• Global, Regional and Cultural Awareness
• Strategic Communication
Managing Organizations and Resources
• Resource Stewardship
• Change Management
• Continuous Improvement
Strategic Thinking
• Vision
• Decision-making
Leading People
• Develops and Inspires Others
• Takes Care of People
• Diversity
Fostering Collaborative Relationships
• Builds Teams and Coalitions
• Negotiating
Embodies Airman Culture
• Ethical Leadership
• Followership
• Warrior Ethos
• Develops Self
• Speaking and Writing
• Active listening
• Willingness to investigate viewpoints different from your own
• Ability to recognize when to doubt claims that do not merit such investigation
How you can be open-minded and still maintain a healthy sense of skepticism
• Seek out facts, information sources, and reasoning to support issues you intend to judge
• Examine issues from as many sides as possible
• Rationally look for the good and bad points of the various sides examined
• Accept the fact that you may be in error yourself
• Maintain the goal of getting at the truth or as close to the truth as possible
Intellectual Humility
• Adhering tentatively to recently acquired opinions
• Being prepared to examine new evidence and arguments even if such examination leads you to discover flaws in your own cherished beliefs
• Stop thinking that complex issues can be reduced to right and wrong or black and white and look at degrees of certainty or shades of gray
• Recognizing that “I don’t know” can sometimes be the wisest position to take on an issue
What it means to be a free thinker
• Having an independent mind
• Being able to restrain yourself from the desire to believe because of social pressures to conform
What it means to have a high motivation to become a critical thinker
• Having a natural curiosity to further your understanding
• Putting in the work to evaluate the multiple sides of an issue
• Reaching a sufficient level of understanding before making judgments
Hindrances to Critical Thinking
• Basic Human Limitations
• Use of Language
• Faulty Logic or Perception
• Psychological or Sociological Pitfalls
As a critical thinker, some questions you should ask yourself about any source of information
• Is the source credible, unbiased, and accurate?
• Does the source have a motive for being inaccurate or overly biased?
How the Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric (HCTSR) is useful to critical thinkers
• This tool relies on the ordinary meanings of common terms used to talk about thinking
• It can aid you in evaluating real-life examples of critical thinking because it only requires you to consider four evaluative definitions:
▪ Strong
▪ Acceptable
▪ Unacceptable
▪ Weak
• This simple tool is sufficient to get you started evaluating critical thinking
How critical thinking skills impact your effectiveness as an NCO
• Make well-reasoned judgments about what to believe and what to do
• Make consistent and well-reasoned decisions
• Remain open-minded and fair-minded
• Analyze and interpret better in order to and solve a myriad of problems
• Ask better questions so that you (and your subordinates) learn better, learn more
• Better regulate your actions, decisions, and behaviors
• Consider multiple perspectives and approaches
• Study complex problems without bias
• Analyze situations critically
• Reach conclusions that may not follow the conventional wisdom but could be the key to success
Physical and Emotional Hindrances
Stress, fatigue, drugs, and related hindrances can severely affect your ability to think clearly and critically
Confirmation Bias and Selective Thinking
• The process whereby you tend to notice and look for what confirms your beliefs
• To ignore, not look for, or undervalue the relevance of what contradicts your beliefs
Testimonial Evidence
Relying on the testimonies and vivid anecdotes of others to substantiate your own beliefs, even though testimonies are inherently subjective, inaccurate, unreliable, biased, and occasionally fraudulent
Personal Biases and Prejudices
Everyone has personal biases and prejudices resulting from their own unique life experiences and worldview that make it difficult to remain objective and think critically
False Memories and Confabulation
• Being unaware that your memories are often “manufactured” to fill in the gaps in your recollection
• Some memories or facts, over time, can be unconsciously replaced with fantasy
Doublespeak Jargon
The use of technical language to make the simple seem complex, the trivial seem profound, or the insignificant seem important, all done intentionally to impress others
Meaningless Comparisons
Language that implies that something is superior but retreats from that view
Assuring Expressions
Using expressions that disarm you from questioning the validity of an argument
A word or expression that can be understood in more than one way
False Implications
Language that is clear and accurate but misleading because it suggests something false
Emotive Content
Intentionally using words to arouse feelings about a subject to bias others positively or negatively in order to gain influence or power
Pragmatic Fallacy
Arguing something is true because “it works,” even though the causality between this something and the outcome are not demonstrated
Slippery Slope Fallacy
An argument that assumes an adverse chain of events will occur but offers no proof
Irrelevant Comparisons
Making a comparison that is:
▪ Irrelevant
▪ Inappropriate
Argument from Ignorance
A logical fallacy claiming something is true because it has not been proven false
Apophenia and Superstition
Erroneous perception of the connections between unrelated events
Evading the Issue (Red Herring)
If one has been accused of wrongdoing, diverting attention to an issue irrelevant to the one at hand
Poisoning the Well
• Creating a prejudicial atmosphere against the opposition
• Making it difficult for the opponent to be received fairly
Ad hominem Fallacy
Criticizing the person making an argument, not the argument itself
Fallacy of False Dilemma (Either/or Fallacy)
Intentionally restricting the number of alternatives, thereby omitting relevant alternatives from consideration
Ad populum (Bandwagon Fallacy)
An appeal to the popularity of the claim as a reason for accepting the claim
Emotional Appeals
Making irrelevant emotional appeals to accept a claim, since emotion often influences people more effectively than logical reasoning
Change Sponsors
Ppeople responsible for initiating change within an organization
Meaning of "Service Before Self"
Professionals can’t indulge themselves in:
▪ Self-pity
▪ Discouragement
▪ Anger
▪ Frustration
▪ Defeatism
• They have a fundamental moral obligation to the people they lead to strike a tone of confidence and forward-looking optimism
Affective Domain
• Involves the manner in which one deals with things emotionally
• It is the impact of one’s:
▪ Attitude
▪ Ability to value
▪ Appreciate
▪ Motivate
Cognitive Domain
• Involves:
▪ Knowledge
▪ Development of intellectual skills
• Includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills
Critical Thinking
• A skill that includes the ability to critically analyze situations
• Unbiasedly consider:
▪ Multiple perspectives
▪ Approaches to problem solving
• Recognizes that some problems:
▪ Require unconventional solutions
▪ Have no right answer
Refers to:
▪ All Airmen
▪ Skilled practitioners
▪ Combatants of air, space, and cyberspace warfare
AFPAM 36-2241
Professional Development Guide
Progressive Professionalism (P2)
Refers to continuous personal and professional development which includes education, training, and experience. All of which helps Airmen move to the right and helps advance the POA
Hardiness of spirit
Stout internal force that can be used to get through challenging times mentally or physically
Moral courage
Ability and willingness to expose oneself to inconvenience, suffering, retaliation, resentment, or disapproval to stand up for what one believes to be right
Physical courage
Observable actions one takes when faced with:
▪ Fear
▪ Pain
▪ Uncertainty
▪ Danger
Profession of Arms
• Distinct, professional sub-culture with a body of theory and specialized knowledge
• Service to the community and nation (unlimited liability clause)
• All combine to:
▪ Defend freedom
▪ Pursue peace
▪ Protect America and its interests
Oath of Enlistment/Reenlistment
• AFDD1-1 refers to it as:
▪ A promise
▪ Ethical agreement
▪ Bond of one’s word
• It is with these oaths that you, as an Airman, first commit yourself to the basic core values, placing service to the Constitution, the President, and compatriots before yourself
What all Airmen accept and embrace upon taking the Oath of Enlistment
• Airmen agree to limit their freedoms to be readily available for short-notice assignments
• They also forfeit certain freedoms like speech and expression to support the needs of national security
• These and many other unique challenges require Airmen to work hard, train hard, and sacrifice regularly as they continue to master their profession, the profession of arms
Elements that make up Warrior Ethos
• Tenacity to push through
• Self-discipline
• Self-control
• Hardiness of spirit despite physical and mental hardships
• Courage (Moral & Physical)
• Resiliency
Air Force Resilience
An Airmen’s ability to withstand, recover, and/or grow in the face of stressors and changing demands by orchestrating the use of base resources, support activities, peers, and leadership
Examples of Air Force Resilience
Resiliency helps Airmen to overcome and “bounce back” from physical and mental hardships that are faced in every day challenges associated with military life to include:
▪ Deaths
▪ Loss of job or position
▪ Divorce
▪ Frequent deployments
▪ Permanent change of station (PCS)
▪ Family separation
• Promotion testing
▪ Wokplace violence
Impact of resiliency on your effectiveness as an NCO
Helps Airmen to overcome and “bounce back” from the physical and mental hardships faced every day
Elements that American Airmen contribute to the military mission that ensures the United States Air Force is the premier air force on the globe
• Their continued professionalism
• Their commitment to the Oath of Enlistment
• Their dedication to the Core Values
Performance Nutrition
Relationship between:
▪ Food consumption
▪ Athletic performance
Aerobic Metabolism
• Creation of energy through the breakdown of carbohydrates and fats in the presence of oxygen
• Its byproducts are:
▪ Carbon dioxide
▪ Water
Anaerobic Metabolism
• Creation of energy through the breakdown of carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen.
• Occurs when there is not enough oxygen in the bloodstream to keep up with the demands from the muscles’ activity.
• Poisonous substances that are a specific product of metabolic activities from a living organism
• Usually unstable
• Notably toxic when introduced into the tissues
• Typically capable of inducing antibody formation
All Four examples of Macronutrients
• Whole grain bread
• Olive oil
• Egg
• Water
• Vitamins
• Minerals
Benefits for having proper nutrition
• Helps maintain blood sugar
• Replenishes muscle glycogen
Ways that functional training helps you
• Makes you better on the job
• Makes you better at home
• Makes you less likely to be injured
• Increases your quality of life
• Decreases stress
• Concept that trains the body as a whole
• Does not necessarily one target muscle group
How one performs high intensity exercise
• Functional workouts
• Tactical breathing
What the letters in FOSI mean
Form Over Speed and Intensity
Ways Human Performance impacts you, your unit and mission effectiveness
• Makes you resilient
• Energy and stamina to work long hours
• Helps you to pay attention to the minute details of life and of the job
• Recharges your physical and mental energy
• Improves your decision making skills
• Improves your performance
• Increases your endurance
First Air Force Major Commands
• Strategic Air Command (SAC)
• Air Defense Command (ADC)
• Tactical Air Command (TAC)
Reasons for Operation Desert Storm
• Iraq invaded Kuwait
• Stabilization of the Arabian Peninsula
• Enforcement of United Nations resolutions
How Operation Allied Force is important to history
• It showed U.S. resolve to prevent human suffering
• It proved the U.S. could operate under the direction of NATO and with coalition partners
• It proved how a phased bombing approach is valuable
• It displayed the fundamental factors of:
▪ Unity
▪ Resolve
The difference between culture and heritage
• Culture is the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes a company or an organization
• Heritage is something transmitted by or acquired from:
▪ A predecessor
▪ Property that descends to an heir
U.S. Army Signal Corps established this in 1907
In 1907, the U.S. Army Signal Corps established a small Aeronautical Division to take charge of all matters pertaining to:
▪ Military ballooning
▪ Air machines
▪ All kindred subjects
The first female pilot allowed to wear the U.S. Army uniform
Ruth Law
On 24 May 1918, the War Department officially recognized these two Army agencies as the Air Service of the U.S. Army
• Bureau of Aircraft Production
• Division of Military Aeronautics
The National Security Act of 1947
Established the United States Air Force, headed by the Chief of Staff, USAF
These successes of Operation Desert Storm proved the importance of airpower
• Decrease casualty counts
• Provide a decisive path to victory
• Decrease the burden on ground forces
• War can be waged from thousands of miles away
This decoration is awarded to U.S. and foreign military personnel and civilians who have displayed extraordinary heroism in one of the following situations:
▪ While engaged in action against a U.S. enemy
▪ While engaged in military operations involving conflict with a foreign force
▪ While serving with a friendly nation engaged in armed conflict against a force in which the U.S. is not a belligerent party
Air Force Cross
Why Air Force culture and heritage important to Airmen
• Knowing the Air Force heritage instills pride and a sense of belonging to an organization with a proud heritage
• Understanding the sacrifice and dedication of those Airmen that have gone before you gives you a better understanding of your NCO responsibilities
• Knowing your culture in the Profession of Arms separates your profession from other professions in terms of sacrifice and dedication
• Air Force Manual that covers reveille and retreat
• Air Force Instruction that governs dress and appearance
• Air Force Manual (AFMAN) 36-2203 covers reveille and retreat ceremonies
• Air Force Instruction (AFI) 36-2903 governs dress and appearance
Purpose of drill and ceremony
o In addition to discipline, military drill teaches and develops:
▪ Teamwork
▪ Confidence
▪ Pride
▪ Alertness
▪ Attention to detail
▪ Esprit de corps
o The purpose of a ceremony is to accomplish the following:
▪ Provides distinctive honors to national symbols or individuals on special occasions
▪ Displays proficiency and the state of training of the troops of a command
▪ Promotes teamwork and pride in an Air Force organization
▪ Contributes to the public morale by displaying symbolically the strength and unity of the military in support of the nation
Importance for an NCO to know drill and ceremony
All NCOs are charged with advancing the Profession of Arms by:
▪ Having uniform and flag ceremonies
▪ Learning how to work as a team
▪ Improving your appearance and discipline
▪ Demonstrating Excellence in All We Do
• Ceremonies advance the POA by:
▪ Increasing pride in uniform and Air Force heritage
▪ Renewing patriotic feelings
How an NCO uses the knowledge of drill and ceremony to enhance subordinate and work center effectiveness
• NCOs who can effectively lead subordinates in drill and ceremony will be more effective leaders in the work center
• NCOs who are able to instill qualities necessary for successful drill and ceremony—discipline, cohesion, teamwork, confidence, pride, alertness, attention to detail, and esprit de corps—can also instill these qualities in subordinates in the work center
Issues you might find when conducting inspections for the first time
• Dress and appearance violations
• Poor attitudes
• Unfamiliarity with uniform regulations
Consists of certain movements by which the flight or squadron is moved in an orderly manner from:
▪ One formation to another
▪ One place to another
Special, formal, group activities conducted by the Armed Forces to:
▪ Honor distinguished persons
▪ Recognize special events
Primary dimensions
Differences that you are born with and cannot normally change
Secondary dimensions
Diverse differences that you control and/or can change
Equal Opportunity (EO)
Refers to legal and regulatory mandates prohibiting discrimination based on:
▪ Race
▪ Color
▪ Sex
▪ National origin
▪ Religion
▪ Age
▪ Disability
▪ Reprisal
Affirmative Action (AA)
Refers to voluntary or mandated programs developed for the purpose of overcoming imbalances in the workforce that affect designated groups, such as:
▪ Members of minority groups
▪ Women
▪ Veterans
▪ People with disabilities
Social sensitivity
One’s reception and responsiveness to the emotions, feelings, personality, temperaments, cultural differences, values, and beliefs of those around them
• A standardized mental picture that one person or group of people holds in common about another person or group of people
• AFPAM 36-2705, The “Seen One, Seen Them All” classification
Social bias
Occurs when someone unfairly favors or prefers a person, culture group, or race to another
What you experience and observe that becomes your reality
• Your position on a particular subject
• How you mentally view a situation
• The fact or quality of being diverse
• Difference
• Unlike in kind
• Distinct
• Varied
• A point of respect in which things differ
• Variety
Primary dimensions of diversity
• Differences that are inborn and/or exert an important impact on early socialization
• An ongoing impact throughout people’s lives
Examples of the primary dimensions
• Age
• Language
• Ethnicity
• Cultural background
• Disability
Secondary dimensions of diversity
Differences that you acquire, discard, and/or modify throughout your life
Examples of the secondary dimensions
• Educational level
• Job function
• Socio-economic status
• Personality profile
• Marital status
• Family responsibilities
• Religious beliefs
• Geographic location
Requirements of being socially sensitive
Requires all Airmen to develop keen awareness and understanding of others’:
▪ Emotions
▪ Feelings
▪ Personality
▪ Temperaments
▪ Strengths
▪ Cultural differences
▪ Values
▪ Beliefs
Ways Socio-Behavioral Tendencies effect the workplace
• Poor communication
• Little or no teamwork
• Animosity toward one another
• Poor morale
• Lack of discipline
• Minimal use of creativity and experience
• Reduced productivity
• Discrimination
Characteristics of a diversity supportive environment where individuals work cohesively in your workplace and their meaning
• Act Proactively- Integrate diversity into everyday thinking
• Leadership Driven- Endorses and actively champions diversity initiatives
• Encourage Ownership of Initiatives- Individuals value diversity and are committed to making it work
• Think Inclusively- Everyone is a valued member of the organization
• Mainstream Diversity- Diversity is a part of every effort
Examples of Socio-Behavioral Tendencies and their meaning
• Assumptions- Assuming is when you take the liberty of claiming something about a situation, item, or someone else that is not supported by fact. For instance, when you arrive at a new assignment, you assume that certain things will remain the same as your last base
• Stereotypes- A fixed or distorted generalization about all members of a particular group. These images are often fueled by mass media reputations passed on by parents, peers, and other members of society. Stereotyping is a way you simplify the social world, reducing the efforts needed to think about the people you encounter
• Prejudices- An adverse or unreasonable opinion about a person or group without all the facts and usually based on deeply held beliefs. Most prejudices are developed early in life, influenced by acquaintances or attachments to specific groups (such as family) during childhood
• Social Biases- An inclination [predisposition] of temperament or outlook, a personal and sometimes unreasoned judgment. Being socially biased is where one unfairly favors or prefers a person, culture, group, or race to another. This is usually the effects of your upbringing, values, pre-existing beliefs, and interests. This makes it impossible for you to be impartial
• Perceptions- The reception and deception of your conception. What you observe and experience becomes your reality until you are convinced or proven otherwise. Your assumptions, prejudices, and social biases contribute to your perceptions and shape how you think and feel. This can present a life-long effect on your life
• Perspectives- Your take based on your position on particular subjects, issues, and matters that relate to you. It is how you mentally view or “see” a situation or the world around you from a particular angle. Otherwise regarded as opinions and personal beliefs, your perspective can affect how you live, interact, and react to others.
• Collusion- If you cooperate with others, knowingly or unknowingly, to reinforce those behaviors that prevent others from fully entering into the workplace culture. It can take the form of silence (neither supporting nor defending the right to inclusion of a certain person or group), denial (ignoring the existence of problems), or active participation (assisting others to reinforce exclusion)
• Discrimination- is the treatment or consideration of making a distinction in favor of or against a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather than on individual merit
Why it is important to understand and employ the FAIR Way strategy
• Feedback is giving and receiving information about expectations as well as how to meet those expectations
• Assistance is making sure workers have what they need to work to their fullest potential
• Inclusion is making sure everyone has the opportunity to fully participate in the Workplace
• Respect is recognizing each person’s unique value, contributions, and potential to the organization
Why a leader should understand diversity
• Helps to maximize individual/unit performance
• Allows your Airmen to reach their highest potential
Ethical leadership
Knowing your core values and having the courage to live by them in all parts of your life in service of the common good
Core beliefs you hold regarding what is right and fair in terms of our actions and our interactions with others
• Set of standards of conduct that guide decisions
• Actions based on duties derived from core values
Values that you attribute to a system of beliefs that help us define:
▪ Right from wrong
▪ Good versus bad
Military ethics
• Set of standards of conduct that guide decisions
• Actions based on duties derived from core values
• Designed to put principle above ones’ own self interest
Ethical relativism
The belief that nothing is objectively right or wrong and that the definition of right or wrong depends on the prevailing view of a:
▪ Particular individual
▪ Culture
▪ Historical period
• Making decisions based on personal values/beliefs rather than on:
▪ Military rules
▪ Regulations
▪ Codes of conduct
Categorical Imperative
Any proposition that declares a certain kind of action (or inaction) to be necessary
Ethical Traps
• Confusion or uncertainly as to what action or behavior should be taken
• Conflicting opinions/values
NCO's scope of responsibility according to AFI 36-2618
• Leading people and teams
• Resource stewardship
• Leading units to accomplish the mission
AFI 36-2618, Enlisted Force Structure
• Outlines roles, responsibilities, and expectations for enlisted members in each enlisted tier
• Describes official terms of address for enlisted members.
Airman’s Creed
• Provides a tangible statement of beliefs that Airmen can hold most dear
• Focuses on and identifies a spirit -- a warfighting ethos -- that transcends time from the past to the present and into the future
• Requires a pride in service
• Fosters a fighting-focused culture
Professional Development Guide (PDG)
• Created as a reliable reference for promotion studying
• Used as a daily guide throughout an Airman’s career
Code of Conduct
Ethical guide that includes six articles that:
• Help you deal with your chief concerns as an American in combat; concerns that become critical when you must:
▪ Evade capture
▪ Resist while a prisoner
▪ Escape from the enemy
• Provide guidance on how to honorably survive captivity which often demands:
▪ Great courage
▪ Deep dedication
▪ High motivation
• Help you to:
▪ Endure the terrors of captivity
▪ Prevail over your captors
▪ Return to your family, home, and nation with honor and pride
DOD Joint Staff Guide 5260, Service Member's Personal Protection Guide
The guidance contained in this section shall assist US Military personnel who find themselves:
▪ Isolated from US control in peacetime
▪ In a situation not related specifically in the Code of Conduct
• United States Military personnel, because of their wide range of activities, are subject to:
▪ Peacetime detention by unfriendly governments
▪ Captivity by terrorist groups
• The guidance in this section seeks to help U.S. Military personnel survive these situations with honor
Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)
o Provides four basic principles that offer ethical guidance:
▪ Military necessity
▪ Humanity
▪ Proportionality
▪ Distinction between lawful combatants, noncombatants, equipment, installations, and civilians.
o Guides you to:
▪ Distinguish between legal and illegal weapons
▪ Report alleged violations of LOAC
▪ Protect civilians/noncombatants
▪ Disobey orders that violate LOAC
▪ Abide by LOAC even when enemies do not
Uniformed Code of Military Justice (UCMJ)
• Provides ethical guidance by clearly describing what is considered a crime in the military; thus, it promotes justice
• Assists in maintaining:
▪ Good order
▪ Discipline
• Promotes efficiency and effectiveness in the military establishment, thereby strengthening the national security of the United States
Examples of accepted ethical codes the Air Force uses to maintain an ethical climate
• USAF Core Values
• AFI 36-2618: The Enlisted Force Structure
• Airmen’s Creed
• Professional Development Guide (PDG)
• Code of Conduct
• DOD Joint Staff Guide 5260 Service Member’s Personal Protection Guide
• Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)
• Uniformed Code of Military Justice (UCMJ)
Why NCO’s should commit to and follow USAF accepted codes of conduct and ethical principles
In order to act and behave in an ethical manner in any given situation
Leaders who model ethical behavior
Inspire confidence in those they lead, inspiring them to accept and follow decisions from ethical leaders and organizations with an ethical climate rather than from unethical leaders or organizations with a corrosive environment
Subordinates of leaders who model ethical behavior
With leaders who model ethical behavior such as setting the example, always doing the right thing, and holding those accountable that do not adhere to rules, results, and realities, their subordinates are more apt to accept and follow decisions from ethical leaders than from those who don’t
NCO’s should create and promote an ethical climate and foster ethical behavior using these principles
• No rewards for unethical behavior
• Sanctions and forgiveness for mistakes
• Appropriate action taken for dereliction of duty
Drive for Success
Making decisions based on a “win at all cost” attitude rather than on:
▪ Military rules
▪ Rregulations
▪ Codes of conduct
Loyalty Syndrome
Making decisions based on respect and/or loyalty to an individual, unit, or organization, etc. rather than on:
▪ Military rules
▪ Regulations
▪ Codes of conduct
Worry over Image
Making decisions based on how the decision will impact one’s reputation/standing among peers, subordinates, supervisors, community etc. rather than on:
▪ Military rules
▪ Regulations
▪ Codes of conduct
National Security
Collective term encompassing both:
▪ National defense
▪ Foreign relations of the United States.
Combatant Commander (CCDR)
Receives orders from the CJCS under the authority and direction of the SecDef
Secretary of Defense
The principal assistant to the President in all matters related to the DoD
Armed Forces serve under this control
Combat Support Agency
• Provides combatant commanders specialized support
• Operates in a supporting role
• Executive authority of this position resides with the Secretary of Defense
National Security Council
• Under the chairmanship of the President
• Coordinates:
▪ Foreign policy
▪ Defense policy
• Reconciles diplomatic and military commitments and requirements
Origin of our National Security
• The US essentially had four militaries that could not or would not work together
• Lines of authority were muddied
▪ Chains of command were unclear
• As a result, a rift existed between the military and its civilian leadership that served to weaken the constitutionally mandated authority of the President and Secretary of Defense
• Congress stepped in and made a change through the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986
• The act included numerous provisions for improving the military‘s effectiveness
Member of the National Security Council (NSC) which drafts the national security strategy
The SecDef is a member of the National Security Council (NSC), which drafts the national security strategy
Organization responsible for developing and executing national military strategy
The DoD‘s mission is to:
• Provide the military forces needed to deter war
• Protect the security of our country
The US military operates under a single chain of command with these two distinct branches
• Operational branch
• Administrative branch
Service Chief
• Military advisers to the President, the National Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense and are senior military officers of their respective Services
• Responsible for keeping the Secretaries of the Military Departments fully informed on matters considered or acted upon by the JCS
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
• Heads the Joint Chiefs of Staff
• Has no command authority over the joint chiefs or any of the armed forces
• Principal military advisor to the:
▪ President
▪ SecDef
Vice-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
• Performs such duties as may be prescribed by the Chairman with the approval of the Secretary of Defense
• In the absence or disability of the Chairman:
▪ Acts as Chairman
▪ Performs the duties of the Chairman until a successor is appointed or the absence or disability ceases
Primary roles of the sister services
• Each Military Department is separately organized under its own Secretary and functions under the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense
• The Military Departments are responsible for organizing, training, and equipping forces for assignment to Unified Combatant Commands
The primary functions of sister services
• To prepare and establish reserves of manpower, equipment, and supplies for effective operations across the range of military operations and plan for the expansion of peacetime components to meet the needs of war
• To maintain in readiness mobile reserve forces, properly organized, trained, and equipped for employment in an emergency
• To provide adequate, timely, and reliable intelligence and counterintelligence for the Military Departments and other agencies as directed by competent authority
• To recruit, organize, train, and equip interoperable forces for assignment to combatant commands
• To prepare and submit programs and budgets for their respective departments
• To conduct research; develop tactics, techniques, and organizations; and develop and procure weapons, equipment, and supplies essential to the fulfillment of the functions assigned by DOD Directives
• To develop, garrison, supply equip and maintain bases and other installations
• To provide as directed such forces, military missions and detachments for service in foreign countries as may be required to support the national interest of the United States
• To assist in training and equipping the military forces of foreign nations
• To provide, as directed administrative and logistic support to the headquarters of combatant commands
• To assist each other in the accomplishment of their respective functions
• To prepare and submit in coordination with other Military Departments mobilization information to the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Purpose of a Joint Task Force and how one is organized
A Joint Task Force (JTF) is:
▪ Comprised of distinct branches of services
▪ Established when the mission has a specific limited objective
• It is formed and so designated by the SecDef, a CCDR, a subordinate unified CDR, or an existing JTF CDR
• A JTF may be established on a geographical area or functional basis and is dissolved when the purpose for which it was created is no longer required
Summary of the United States Air Force Major Command (MAJCOM) structure
• Air Force MAJCOMs are:
▪ Primarily organized by mission
▪ Led by a general officer
• There are different types of wings, based on objectives:
▪ Operational
▪ Air base
▪ Specialized mission
• A wing may have several squadrons in more than one dependent group
• Wings typically contain:
▪ Operations group
▪ Maintenance group
▪ Support group
▪ Medical group
• The majority of individual officers and Airmen are assigned to a squadron, which may be composed of several flights
Tasked with the coordination of people and transportation assets to allow the US to project and sustain forces, whenever, wherever, and for as long as they are needed
• Responsible for US military relations with NATO
• Conducts military operations, international military partnering, and interagency partnering to enhance transatlantic security and defend the United States forward
Conducts several covert and clandestine missions, such as:
▪ Unconventional warfare
▪ Foreign internal defense
▪ Special reconnaissance
▪ Psychological operations
▪ Civil affairs
▪ Direct action
▪ Counter-terrorism
▪ War on drugs operations
Plans, organizes, and executes homeland defense and civil support missions
Charged with:
▪ Space operations
▪ Information operations
▪ Missile defense
▪ Global command and control
▪ Intelligence
▪ Surveillance
▪ Reconnaissance
AOR includes:
▪ Middle East
▪ Egypt
▪ Central Asia
Primarily responsible for:
▪ Providing mission-ready joint-capable forces
▪ Supporting the development and integration of joint, interagency, and multinational capabilities to meet the present and future operational needs of the joint force
Provides airlift and aerial refueling for all of America‘s armed forces.
Organizes, trains, equips, and maintains resources prepared to conduct a broad spectrum of air operations in the DoD‘s largest area of responsibility
Executes the U.S. European Command mission with forward-based air power
Responsible for the readiness of Air Force special operations
Organizes, trains, equips, and deploys ready forces to support combatant commands around the globe
• Recruits Airmen
• Provides all types and levels of education and training to Airmen
• Provides professional military and degree-granting professional education
Develops and provides combat-ready forces for:
▪ Nuclear deterrence
▪ Global strike operations
Delivers war-winning technology, acquisition support, sustainment and expeditionary capabilities to the warfighter
• Conducts fixed-winged aerial spray missions
• Flies hurricane hunter missions
• Administratively responsible for the AF individual mobilization augmentee program
• Responsible for overseeing Air Force network operations to provide capabilities in, through and from cyberspace
• Manages a global network of satellites
Custom if you are driving on an Army post during retreat
• Stop your vehicle
• Get out
• Come to the position of attention
• Render a hand salute
Custom if you are approached on a military installation by a vehicle carrying a flag with one or more stars
• You must stop
• Face the vehicle
• Come to the position of attention
• Render a hand salute
• You may drop your salute once the vehicle passes
• The flag signifies that an Admiral or General is riding in the vehicle
Military Theory
The scientific, artistic, and philosophical idea or view relating to principles, methods, rules, and operations of war
Principles of War
Those aspects of warfare that are universally true and relevant. They are:
▪ Unity of command
▪ Objective
▪ Offensive
▪ Mass
▪ Maneuver
▪ Economy of force
▪ Security
▪ Surprise
▪ Simplicity
Doctrine is authoritative, but not directive
U.S. Strategy
The art and science of developing and employing instruments of national power in a synchronized and integrated fashion to achieve theater, national, and/or multinational objectives
Air Force Doctrine
A statement of officially sanctioned beliefs, war fighting principles, and terminology that describes and guides the proper use of air, space, and cyberspace power in military operations
Basic Doctrine
Statement of officially sanctioned beliefs
Tactical Doctrine
Guides the proper organization and employment of forces in the context of:
▪ Distinct objective
▪ Force capabilities
▪ Broad functional areas
• This type of doctrine changes the fastest
Operational Doctrine
Describes the proper employment of specific Air Force assets, individually or in concert with other assets, to accomplish detailed objectives
An incident or situation involving a threat to a nation
Traditional Warfare
Force on force military operations in which adversaries employ a variety of conventional military capabilities
Principles of War
Aspects of warfare that are:
▪ Universally true
▪ Relevant
Irregular Warfare
Violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over relevant populations
U.S. Strategy
Defines how operation will be conducted to accomplish national policy objectives
Activities, operations, organizations in which elements of two or more military departments participate
An anticipated situation that likely would involve military forces in response to natural and man-made disasters
Series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic or operational objectives
How tactical actions potentially affect the mission success in a JIIM
Tactical actions are used in battle such as:
▪ Ambushes
▪ Seeking and turning flanks
▪ Maintaining reconnaissance
▪ Creating and using obstacles and defenses
• The enemies‘ tactics are changing like the use of IEDs
• If you don‘t change your tactics to fight against the enemy, your mission could fail
Crisis Response and Contingency Operations
Focuses on:
• Deterring war
• Resolving conflict
• Promoting peace
• Irregular warfare
• National disasters
• Supporting civil authorities in response to domestic crisis
Homeland Defense
The protection of U.S. sovereignty, territory, domestic population, and critical defense infrastructure against external threats and aggression
Non-adversarial crisis
Term used to describe how operational Airmen accomplish missions that are not war but responses to a crisis or contingency
Adversarial crisis
An operation in which there is an enemy that our energies are being directed toward
Civil support
DoD support to:
• U.S. civil authorities for domestic emergencies
• Designated law enforcement and other activities
Refers to a Joint Interagency, Intergovernmental, Multinational Environment
Joint Campaign
A series of activities, operations, or organizations in which elements of two or more military departments participate to achieve strategic and operational objectives within a given time and space
Key operational Air Force capabilities that are provided through airpower
• Strategic Attack
• Counterair
• Counterland
• Air Interdiction
• Countersea
• Combat Support
• Airlift
• Air Refueling
• Special Operations
Fundamental concepts of traditional warfare
• A confrontation between nation-states or coalitions/alliances of nation-states
• Typically involves force-on-force military operations in which adversaries employ a variety of conventional military capabilities against each other in the air, land, maritime, space, and cyberspace domains
• The objectives may be to convince or coerce key military or political decision makers, defeat an adversary‘s armed forces, destroy an adversary‘s war-making capacity, or seize or retain territory in order to force a change in an adversary‘s government or policies
Fundamental concepts of irregular warfare
• A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations
• Combatants are irregular military rather than regular forces, like guerrilla or asymmetric warfare
• They may employ the full range of military and other capabilities, in order to erode an adversary‘s power, influence, and will
• Will test the resolve of a state and its strategic partners
How the Air Force capabilities of air, space, and cyberspace relate to and complement other U.S. Air Force units or service capabilities
• All operations require some sort of collaboration between units or services
• The Joint environment requires all units/services to work together to accomplish the mission
• Without Air Force capabilities you would not have control of air, space, or cyberspace making it hard to accomplish any mission
Art and science of developing and employing instruments of national power in a synchronized and integrated fashion to achieve theater, national, and/or multinational objectives
Situation requiring military operations in response to natural disasters, terrorists, subversives, or as otherwise directed by appropriate authority to protect U.S. interests
Belief or assumption that the particular social or cultural group a person belongs to is superior
Belief that:
▪ Morals depend on particular situation and truth
▪ Morals change depending on a particular culture or situation
Mirror imaging
When one corresponds or associates an object to another object in the same way as it would correspond to its image in a mirror
Ways that someone sees and understands world events, especially in relation to their religious or political beliefs and ideas
Why it is important for an NCO to understand and be aware of the impact of diverse cultures as they relate to:
▪ Human interactions
▪ Behaviors
▪ Mission accomplishment
• Knowing the impact of diverse cultures allows Airmen to work successfully with allies and defeat adversaries
• Understanding culture is an increasingly important component of this knowledge; indeed, the more unconventional the adversary (and the more diverse from US cultural norms), the more important it is for the US military to understand the adversary‘s society and underlying cultural dynamics as a means of ensuring operational success
• Cultural awareness can reduce battlefield friction and the fog of war
• It can improve the military‘s ability to accomplish its mission by providing insight into the intent of the groups in the battlespace, thus allowing military leaders to outthink and out maneuver them
• The success of US military operations calls for American military members to become experts in not only the culture of their adversaries, but also in the culture of their allies, civilian counterparts, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), international organizations, and others
Domains of Culture
• Family and Kinship
• Religion and Spirituality
• Sex and Gender
• Political and Social Relations
• Economics and Resources
• Time and Space
• Language and Communication
• Technology and Material
• History and Myth
• Sustenance and Health
• Aesthetics and Recreation
• Learning and Knowledge
Characteristics that shape worldviews
• Our ideas about who has the authority in a group
• How truth is defined and presented to others
• How people define beauty, good, evil and deviance
• Causality beliefs that certain actions or situations cause other events
• The meaning and value of human life
• The place of spirit and mind in our belief systems and education
• People‘s definition of the good life
• Human relationships to the Creator, to the Cosmos, and to other Humans
• How do people gain power, prestige, and legitimacy
• How much are people believed to act as independent agents
• Does sorcery exist
• Definitions of violence and coercion
• The degree to which people are expected to submit to authority
• The role of the individual versus the collective
• Relative importance of rules and relationships
Examples of how religion and culture has influenced Joint Operations
• Joint Operations have included/provided:
▪ Culture specific training
▪ Cultural awareness training
▪ Language training
• Policies, procedures, and plans must now consider and/or encompass cultural considerations that include:
▪ Local culture
▪ Sister service culture
▪ Multinational
▪ Allies
Refers to the obligation imposed by law, lawful order, or regulation on an officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents, or funds
Refers to the ability to:
• Be trusted
• Be accurate
• Provide a correct result
Refers to the prevention from action by fear of consequences
Nuclear Surety
• Refers to materiel, personnel, and procedures that contribute to the security, safety, and reliability of nuclear weapons
• Assurance that there will be no nuclear weapon accidents, incidents, unauthorized weapon detonations, or degradation in performance at the target
Protection from, or not being exposed to, the risk of harm or injury
Involves measures taken by a military unit, activity, or installation to protect against all acts designed to, or which may, impair its effectiveness
List significant events that occurred in the history of nuclear weapons.
• Cuban Missile Crisis
• Berlin Airlift
• Hiroshima
Nuclear Deterrence
• The prevention from action by fear of consequences
• A state of mind brought about by the existence of a credible threat of unacceptable counteraction
Formula used to define deterrence
Deterrence = Capability x Will x Perception
Role of nuclear weapons in deterrence
• The primary purpose of maintaining the US nuclear arsenal is to discourage an enemy from pursuing, procuring, and employing nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction (WMD) for fear of reprisals
• Maintaining this capability is an essential factor in:
▪ Deterrence
▪ Wil
▪ Perception
Ways in which an NCO supports deterrence and impacts national security strategy
• Practice OPSEC
• Augmentee SFS if needed
• Participate in nuclear surety inspections and exercises
• Transport/secure nuclear weapons
• Support the administrative and medical needs of those who work with nuclear weapons (PRP)
• Supervise subordinate performance
• Discipline substandard performance
• Promote the importance of deterrence
Nuclear Proliferation
The rapid increase or spread of nuclear weapons and nuclear material, technology, and information to nations that aren‘t recognized by NWS
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
An effort by members to detect, secure, and dispose of weapons of mass destruction
Nuclear Weapon State (NWS)
A nation that has nuclear weapons and the capability for their employment
Key components of nuclear surety
• Security
• Safety
• Reliability
Individual reliability encompasses these two processes
• Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) ensures that those persons whose behavior demonstrates integrity, reliability, and are trustworthy to the United States shall be allowed to perform duties associated with nuclear weapons
• Two-person concept requires the presence at all times two PRP individuals perform tasks and duties associated with the nuclear weapon
Purpose of creating the Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC) in 2009
• Execute nuclear weapons with precision when called upon by our Nation
• Ensure oversight of the nuclear mission of the US Air Force
• Restore our country‘s and our allies‘ faith in our ability to safeguard nuclear assets
The Air Force Global Strike Command operates these two new commands that encompass two numbered Air Forces
• 8th Air Force, which is responsible for all nuclear-capable bombers
• 20th Air Force, which is responsible for all ICBMs
Components of the New Triad
• Bombers
Ways the United States can prepare to defend itself and its allies against the threats of nuclear proliferation
• Continue to conduct research and technology
• Military training (CBRNE)
• Invent new nuclear weapons
• Continue to collect credible intelligence
Incidents that led to the US Air Force reemphasizing the nuclear enterprise
• The unauthorized movement of nuclear weapons
• The misshipment of sensitive missile components
Lesson learned as a result of the misshipment of sensitive missile components in March 2008
The lesson learned in the incident involving the misshipment of sensitive missile components was a violation of process discipline, which requires following standard operating procedures to accomplish routine missions
Lessons learned from the unauthorized movement of nuclear weapons and misshipment of sensitive missile component relating to an NCO‘s responsibilities
• An NCOs primary responsibility is mission accomplishment
• These incidents have shown that when supervisors stop valuing the mission everything breaks down and mission readiness fails
• NCOs must know and enforce nuclear regulations and lead by positive example
• An NCO can assume the responsibility of ensuring nuclear weapons related events do not occur by:
• Leading by positive example
• Assuming responsibility for their actions
• Communicating the importance of nuclear surety to Airmen
• Monitoring personnel actions
• Disciplining inappropriate behavior and substandard duty performance
• Knowing/enforcing nuclear regulations
Weapons Storage Areas (WSAs)
Heavily secured areas inside the perimeter of a base commonly referred to as igloos
Prime Nuclear Airlift Force (PNAF)
• Peacetime support of logistical airlift
• Specially trained C-130 and C-17 aircrews and support personnel
Weapons Storage and Security System (WS3)
Includes electronic monitoring and controls and weapons storage vaults built into the floor of a Protective Aircraft Shelter
Launch Control Center (LCC)
Deep underground structure of reinforced concrete and steel in a blast and pressure protected hardened capsule
Missile Silo
• Underground, vertical cylindrical container
• Physically hardened and protected by a large "blast door" on top
Personnel Reliability Program (PRP)
Ensures only those persons whose behavior demonstrates integrity, reliability, trustworthiness, allegiance, and loyalty to the United States shall be allowed to perform duties associated with nuclear weapons
Two-person concept
Two certified personnel knowledgeable in the task and are capable of detecting incorrect acts
State of mind brought about by the existence of a credible threat of unacceptable counteraction
Factors of the deterrence equation
• Capability
• Will
• Perception
Nuclear Proliferation
Activities by non-members of the Non-proliferation Treaty to secure, transport, and employ weapons of mass destruction
Nuclear Non-Proliferation
Acts by members of the NPT to detect, secure, and dispose of these weapons
Nuclear Weapons State (NWS)
Has manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device prior to 1 January 1967.
Elements of the New Triad
• Non-nuclear and nuclear
• Active and passive defenses
• Infrastructure
SSgt Tate is a supply management supervisor who wants to be the best she can be as an Airman and a professional. She values training and enhancement opportunities and makes an effort to acquire higher education. She also wants to ensure the growth of her Airmen, so she makes time to sit down with each one of them to provide clear guidance and expectations. She does not hesitate to correct substandard behaviors or recognize Airmen who exceed the standards. The result of Tate’s actions has played an instrumental part in her workcenter receiving top awards from Group Command
This scenario BEST illustrates Progressive Professionalism (P2) and will MOST LIKELY have a positive impact on unit effectiveness
▪ Progressive Professionalism (P2) is the concept of improving oneself on the professional continuum through education, training, ethical behavior, and being morally balanced. The foundation of P2 is the DDR, a methodology of providing Airmen with direction, discipline and recognition as require
▪ Tate is promoting that by taking the effort necessary to improve herself on the professional continuum and providing direction, discipline and recognition for her Airmen as required
▪ This will have a positive impact on the unit effectiveness
TSgt Smith is the NCOIC of night shift in the maintenance section. He was chosen because of his extensive knowledge and experience, as well as his ability to influence others. He continually emphasizes the importance of upholding standards and ensuring the job gets done right. He is well liked by all the Airmen, and they all look up to him. One evening, SrA Williams approached him and informed him that he couldn’t finish a job because the only torque wrench they have is overdue calibration. Smith thought about it for a little while and instructed Williams to use it anyway. He justified it by saying that it’s just one day overdue, what could possibly be off in one day
The actions of TSgt Smith violate the AF Core Values and will MOST LIKELY result in decreased mission effectiveness
▪Air Force Core Values are said to be our inner voice; the voice of self-control and the basis for the trust imperative in today’s military. These institutional values and principles of conduct provide the moral framework within which military activities take place
▪ By instructing the use of the overdue torque wrench, Smith is violating the AF Core Values and negatively affecting the mission effectiveness
As TSgt Burke and his team learn of their upcoming deployment to Afghanistan, he recalls the physical strain they endured on their last deployment working with heavy gear in the desert environment. To ensure his team is trained and fit for the deployment, Burke enlisted the help of an Air Force exercise physiologist to develop an exercise plan to help his team endure the physical strain of the gear in the desert climate while disposing of explosives. The conditioning has made a huge difference in their effectiveness at the deployed location
This scenario BEST illustrates Functional Training
▪ Functional Training is defined as any type of exercise that has a direct relationship to the activities you perform in your daily life
▪ In the scenario, Burke reflects back to his last deployment and realizes the difficulty his team had working in the desert climate while wearing the heavy gear. So, he enlists the help of an Air Force exercise physiologist to develop a Functional Training plan that resulted in the team being more effective
SSgt Stanley collapsed during squadron PT. TSgt Jones ran over to her to ensure she was okay, but she looked very pale and weak. He helped her to a spot to rest and regain her strength. Once Jones was comfortable with her condition, he asked, “Sergeant Stanley, I’ve noticed you’ve lost a lot of weight in the past several weeks. Are you getting enough to eat?” She responded, “I’ve been trying to lose weight in preparation for my upcoming PT test. I can’t afford to fail; my EPR is due in a few months, and I don’t want a referral”
Stanley’s actions will MOST LIKELY result in Loss of strength and endurance and potential injuries due to fatigue and negatively impact NCO effectiveness
▪Low nutrient intake can compromise performance and negate training benefits to include the loss of strength and endurance. Additionally, it can result in lower energy stores resulting in an overall feeling of tiredness and increase the risk of injury
▪ In the scenario, Stanley’s improper nutrition may result in weight loss but will not help the fitness assessment and may create health problems that will lessen her ability to be an effective NCO
TSgt Sharp, known for his consistency and maintenance of good order, performed an open ranks inspection. During the inspection, Sharp noticed that Airman Tidwell’s uniform was missing a button and was wrinkled. After the inspection, he counseled Tidwell and informed him that according to AFI 36-2903 each Air Force member is required to keep their uniform neat, clean, pressed, buttoned, and properly maintained at all times. The next month Tidwell won the Squadron “Look Sharp Award”
This scenario BEST illustrates TSgt Sharp’s understanding of inspections and discipline and its impact on NCO effectiveness
▪ All Air Force members must adhere to standards of neatness, cleanliness, safety and military image to provide the appearance of a disciplined service member. A distinct hallmark of military precision and discipline is the ability of an individual Airman to present a perfect appearance
▪ Sharp is supporting that concept by conducting an open rank inspection and enforcing standards. Sharp’s action has ensured the maintenance of discipline which helped Tidwell win the “Look Sharp Award”
MSgt Wyatt has been given the honor of conducting a retreat ceremony for Memorial Day. Since there are only a few days left before the event, Wyatt informs the team that they will practice at the end of each day to ensure they properly perform the ceremony. At the practice, Wyatt notices that they grumble and complain about having to wear the uniform and work on their day off. Wyatt decides to bring everyone in for a little talk and sternly states, “It’s hot and I know you would all rather be doing something else, but this retreat means a lot to the veterans and the families of the fallen”
MSgt Wyatt’s interpretation of culture and heritage will MOST LIKELY increase mission effectiveness
▪ Understanding of the Air Force culture can help the NCO explain many of the current beliefs, actions and roles that determines the success of the military organization as a whole. Additionally, retreat ceremony pays respect to the flag that represents sacrifices of each and every service member for the freedom of this country
▪ The words of Wyatt should motivate the Airmen to feel honor for their participation which will likely increase mission effectiveness
TSgt Wyatt’s team is extremely competent and works well together. He considers all of the friendly teasing and joke-telling signs of a healthy team. This morning, two team members approach him and explain how uncomfortable they are with most of the jokes. Wyatt responds, “If I take action now, it might disrupt our deployment preparations and interfere with our teamwork. Do you two want that?” Both Airmen say, “No sir!” Wyatt says, “Good. Just ignore the humor for now, and I’ll deal with it as soon as we return
TSgt Wyatt’s failure to apply the FAIR Way will MOST LIKELY have a negative impact on mission effectiveness
▪ FAIR Way employs four techniques for maximizing retention and productivity and maintaining effective working relationship in workplaces. Telling crude jokes that attack the cultural background of anyone is unacceptable
▪ TSgt Wyatt needs to reinforce the Air Force Zero Tolerance policy when it comes to diversity with some team members. Acting as a force for the acceptance of diversity and addressing the perceived diversity issues as quickly as possible should help the team continue to work well together
Upon entering the break room, the NCOIC MSgt Mitchell encounters two Airmen yelling at each other and says, “What's going on here?” A1C Abbas states, “When I told A1C Shula to help us clean up, he called me prayer-boy and refused to follow my orders. I told him you put me in charge, so he has to follow my orders. He called me the same name again and that’s when you walked in.” Mitchell says, “Airman Shula, I put Airman Abbas in charge of the clean-up, therefore you will do as he says. No excuses. Do you understand me?” Snapping to attention, A1C Shula says, “Yes sir!” After Mitchell leaves, Shula says, “Alright prayer-boy, what do you want me to do?”
This scenario BEST illustrates a non diversity-supportive environment and its negative impact on mission effectiveness
▪ Diversity-Supportive Organization embraces all aspects of diversity and exhibits the following characteristics: act proactively, leadership-driven, encourage ownership of initiatives, think inclusively, and mainstream diversity
▪ MSgt Mitchell’s work center is not portraying those characteristics and it will negatively affect their mission effectiveness
SSgt Walker and his team are preparing for an inspection. While organizing the storage room, A1C Bates discovers equipment that should have been turned in months ago per the AFI. He reports the findings to Walker and suggests hiding the equipment until after the inspection. Walker responds, “That will quickly take care of the problem, but understand there are possible consequences for that decision.” After considering the consequences, Bates decides to fill out the paper work to turn-in the equipment. On the inspection report, it was noted that equipment was turned in late; however, the work center identified it and corrected the discrepancy in a proper manner
This scenario BEST illustrates effective use of . the ethical principle of the Three R’s and its impact on NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness
▪ Three R’s of ethical principles are rules, results, and realities. It explains that “rules” gives us the ethical guidance, “results” are the outcomes, the bottom line, and the consequences of not following those rules, and “realities” which recognize the importance of the situation or circumstances
▪ The scenario depicts SSgt Walker thinking through those areas and coming to an ethical decision
SSgt Stanley, a well-respected NCO, conducted a review of the work center’s training records for the upcoming Operational Readiness Inspection. During his review, he identified several required tasks that weren’t signed off. Due to time constraints, he had his Airmen initial off on those tasks. He planned to go over the areas at another time
SSgt Stanley’s behavior of “drive for success” will MOST LIKELY reduce NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness.
▪ “Drive for success” is one of four categories of ethical traps. It is making decisions based on a “win at all cost” attitude rather than on military rules, regulations, and codes of conduct
▪ Stanley fell into that trap by “pencil-whipping” training records to pass the inspection, which could be detrimental to NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness
TSgt Skinner, Avionics Maintenance NCOIC, has three Airmen about to deploy with the Army. During a conversation, Amn Soho asks, ―We‘ve never worked with the Army; what should we expect?‖ Skinner replies, ―The command is composed of two or more military departments and has a broad continuing mission under a single commander. The commander has the operational control and has full authority to organize and employ the forces as necessary to accomplish assigned missions.‖ After Skinner answered several more questions, Soho says, ―Thank you, sir. I now feel better prepared for the deployment
This paragraph BEST summarizes how knowledge of Combatant Commands impact NCO effectiveness
• Combatant Commands are a command with a broad continuing mission under a single commander and composed of two or more Military Departments
• The commander of a combatant command has the full authority to organize and employ commands and forces as necessary to accomplish assigned missions. It also shows how Skinner’s knowledge of Joint Organizations (Combatant Commands) impacts his effectiveness, as evidence by Soho’s final statement
MSgt Jenkins, NCOIC of a work center in the Technology and Interoperability Facility, is meeting with Amn Simpkins who has just in-processed to the unit. Jenkins feels that it is important to meet with each Airman to give them his expectations and ensure they understand the mission they support. He begins by telling her, ―Our organization oversees Air Force network operations that provide cyberspace capabilities by managing a network of satellites. We are also responsible for operating sensors that provide direct attack warning and assessment to US Strategic Command and North American Aerospace Defense Command. The National Command Authority relies upon us to fulfill their mission
This scenario BEST explains the importance of the Air Force Space Command
• The AFSPC is responsible for organizing, training, and equipping mission ready space and cyberspace forces which MSgt Jenkins is part of as network operation manager
• Jenkins and Simpkins is part of a command that has an important role in providing space capabilities in support for combatant commanders throughout the world. Without that support, missions all over the world will fail due to the Air Force’s reliance on cyberspace, space, weather, and intelligence reconnaissance
TSgt Rojas is a loadmaster for a C-17 Globemaster stationed at McChord AFB, WA. He briefs his team on their upcoming mission. ―This is classified information, he begins. We are deploying immediately to Aviano AB, Italy to pick up the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team stationed at Vicenza, Italy for a combat jump to an undisclosed location in Southwest Asia
This scenario BEST explains the relationship of supporting capabilities within a joint campaign
• The Air Force is providing airlift to the Army, which according to the Joint Warfighter chapter is one example of a supporting capability (one service using its functions to support another service)
• In addition, JP 1-02 defines a joint campaign as one in which elements of two or more departments that are military participate
Since the Sept 11, 2001 attack on the US, the US military has been under indirect and asymmetric warfare. The US overwhelming dominance in military capability made it highly unlikely that adversaries will choose to fight head-to-head. Instead they have used spectrum of warfare where the nature and characteristics are significantly different. It includes, but is not limited to, activities such as insurgency, counterinsurgency, terrorism, and counterterrorism
This paragraph BEST summarizes Irregular Warfare
• Irregular Warfare favors indirect and asymmetric warfare approaches in order to erode an adversary’s power, influence, and will
• Some of the asymmetric capabilities used are suicide bombers, improvised explosive devices, and the cover of civilian populations
TSgt Jonson is about to deploy for the first time. Not wanting to make the same cultural mistakes, others in his unit have made while deployed, he memorized the Air Force Cultural and Language Center‘s field guide on Afghanistan‘s culture. He also visits a local Afghan community in the States to practice what he has learned and establishes a great working relationship with the Afghan community
TSgt Jonson‘s actions BEST illustrate effective application of the AF Cross-Cultural Competence Model
• Air Force Cross-Cultural Competence Model illustrates how you can influence your environment through active learning approaches coupled with knowledge and motivation
• TSgt Jonson has demonstrated that by taking what he has learned from the pamphlet developed by the Air Force Cultural and Language Center and applying it in the local Afghan community
• His initiative in doing so exemplifies a motivation of an Airman wanting to make a positive difference in a deployment
Special Agent Mirza is deployed overseas and working closely with local tribes to gather intelligence on rebel forces who threaten US Operations in the area. Special Agent Mirza must meet with one of the tribal elders to build a health clinic in exchange for information on local insurgents. Special Agent Mirza remembers that he must wait for the tribal elder to hug him before beginning the meeting. He notices the tribal elder appears frustrated with him so he quickly lowers his eyes as a sign of respect and then they sit down and begin the meeting
Special Agent Mirza‘s Communication will MOST LIKELY increase mission effectiveness
• Knowledge alone is insufficient to achieve cross-cultural competence. To exert positive influence in culturally complex environments, Airmen must be able to “operationalize” their knowledge
• Special Agent Mirza uses the skill of communicating to avoid misunderstandings with the tribal elder
• His work increases his unit’s effectiveness and accomplishes the mission
SrA Trip is a weapons loader on a crew that has been loading the B-2 Bomber. While loading the Rotary Launcher Assembly (RLA) that contains nuclear weapons, he notices one of the racks that attach the bomb to the RLA was missing a bolt. From training, he remembered it as one of several bolts that holds the locking mechanism and could affect the rack‘s ability to hold the bomb in place. He wonders if this is something he should report to the Team Chief. However, he continues his task and decides not to mention it figuring it has already been verified by both the breakout and tow crews, and was accepted by the crew chief. It was later discovered by QA and the RLA removed from service
This scenario BEST illustrates a violation of the safety element of the nuclear surety concept and an impact to nuclear employment
• Safety is one of three key elements of nuclear surety. It consists of program guidance, system evaluation, safety assurance, and for conduct of safe nuclear weapon system operations
• Trip violated that by disregarding what he knew to be a safety issue and justified it by telling himself that others have verified the system and it was cleared
• This could result in a nuclear mishap and degradation of nuclear employment
SSgt Field and A1C Thomas is on duty as the Monitoring Facility Operator for the Weapons Storage and Security System (WS3). Early one morning Thomas experienced several momentary alarm failures. Each outage lasted for only a few seconds and communications to the security system was regained. Field wondered if the alarm glitch was due to the recent inclement weather they had experienced. Since the system appeared to auto correct itself, Field decided to hold off reporting the incident to the Maintenance Operations Center immediately as required by the Air Base Instructions
Field‘s inaction will MOST LIKELY result in a compromise of nuclear weapons’ security and nuclear weapons security standards which will negatively impact mission effectiveness
• Security is the total spectrum of procedures, facilities, equipment, and personnel employed to protect nuclear weapon. In this scenario, security of the nuclear weapons is compromised due to uncertainty of the alarm system integrity
• Field should have followed the Air Base Instruction and reported the incident immediately
• Compromise of the nuclear weapons security is a serious matter and will cause degradation of nuclear surety