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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is it called when a tooth is fused to the alveolar bone?
What has the tooth lost in order for this to happen?
How is Ankylosis Initiated?
Infection or trauma to the PDL
The excessive formation of cementum around the root of a tooth after the tooth has erupted.
How is hypercementosis initiated?
Trauma, metabolic dysfunction, or periapical inflammation
The fusion or growing together of two adjacent teeth at the root through the cementum only.
Supernumary tooth between the maxillary centrals
How does the max. arch generally compare with the mand. arch?
It is slightly longer
The sum of the M-D diameter of the maxillary teeth is about _____.
128 mm
The sum of the M-D diameter of the mandibular teeth is about _____.
126 mm
In general the primary arch is more _____ than the permanent arch.
The abnormal or pathologic wearing away of tooth structure by mechanical means.
Caused by the use of a hard toothbrush and/or a horizontal brushing stroke and/or a gritty dentrifice.
Toothbrush Abrasion
What features most often occurs from toothbrush abrasion?
V-shaped wedges at the cervical margin in the canines and pre-molars
What is caused by chewing or biting hard foods or objects or chewing tobacco?
Occlusal Abrasion
What features does occlusal abrasion result in?
Flattened cusps on all posterior teeth and worn incisal edges.
The wearing away of enamel and dentin from the normal function or, more commonly, from excessive grinding or gritting together of teeth.
Attrition (Bruxism)
What are the most noticeable effects of attrition?
Polished facets
flat incisal edges
discolored tooth surface
exposed dentin
Where do facets from attrition usually develop?
linguoincisal of Max. central incisors
facioincisal of mand. canines
linguoincisal of max. canines
The loss of tooth structure from chemical or non-mechanical means
What does erosion result from?
Drinking acidic liquids or eating acidic foods.
Bulimic individuals do to stomach acids
What surfaces are most affected in erosion?
Smooth (esp. Lingual) and occlusal surfaces
What vitamin deficiency can be involved in cleft lip/ palate/
Vitamin B folic acid
What are the chemical agents capable of causing developmental abnormalities in utero called?
Developmental abnormalities is related to the _____ and _____ of teratogen involvement.
Type, Time
What is the length of time in which the fetus is most sensitive to teratogen attack?
First trimester
What teratogens are associated with cleft lip and palate?
Aspirin, valium, dilantin, smoking
What teratogens are associated with Microcephaly, hydrocephaly, microphthalmia?
Cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma
What teratogens are associated with Central mid-face discrepency?
Ethyl alcohol
What teratogens are associated with microphthalmia, cataracts, deafness?
Rubella virus
What teratogens are associated with microcephaly?
What teratogens are associated with premature suture closure?
Vitamin D excess
Meaning teeth with different morphologies and function.
To produce two sets of teeth
Having one set of teeth
Teeth continually being replaced
Polyphyodont (fish, amphibians, reptiles)
Teeth are all alike
Having long teeth
Developmental abnormality characterized by the total absence of teeth is called what?
What are the two forms of anodontia called/
Complete true
Partial anodontia
What are the characteristics of complete true anodontia?
All teeth missing
May involve primary and permanent
Usu. associated w/ hereditary ectodermal dysplasia
What is another name for Partial anodontia?
Congenitally missing teeth
What are the characteristics of partial anodontia?
Teeth affected are:
- third molars (max. more than mand.)
- Max. lateral incisors
- Mand. Second Pre-molars
As a general rule, if only one or a few teeth are missing, the absent tooth will be the most _____ tooth of any given type.
Distal (If molar will be third molar)
Congenital absence of many, but not all teeth
Absence of only a few teeth
What can cause an anterior open bite and overjet, labial flare of max. anterior teeth, and a high palatal vault?
Pressure of the thumb against the palate and Max. teeth during growth and development
Characterized by failure of the teeth in both arches to meet properly.
Open Bite
Where can open bites be observed?
What is it attributed to?
Anterior or Posterior regions
Supraeruption of adjacent teeth or Infraeruption of teeth in the area in question
What can open bites be caused by besides thumb sucking?
Deviant growth patterns or a forward tongue position
What nationality is open bites more common in?
African Americans
What nationality is deep bites more common in?
What can persistent thumb sucking result in ?
Protrusion of Max. incisors
Constriction of Max. arch
Lingual inclination of Mand. incisors
Rotation of Max. lateral incisors
Class II malocclusions
How is mouth breathing typically presented clinically?
- Gingiva of facial aspect of Maxillary Anterior is red, edematous and bleeding
- Area is widest in midline and tapers laterally
Someone with hypocalcification has a _____ quantity of enamel and would describe it as _____.
Normal, Soft
Hereditary dental defect in which the enamel of the teeth is soft and undercalcified in context yet normal in quantity.
Enamel hypocalcification
What is enamel hypocalcification caused by?
Defective maturation of ameloblasts (defect in mineralization of the formed matrix)
What are the characteristics of enamel hypocalcification?
Teeth are chalky
Surfaces wear down rapidly
Yellow-brown stains appear as underlying dentin is exposed
What teeth are affected by enamle hypocalcification?
Both deciduous and permanent teeth
Developmental defect in which the enamel of the teeth is hard in context but thin and deficient in amount.
Enamel hypoplasia
What causes enamel hypoplasia?
Defective enamel matrix formation with a deficiency in the cementing substance
What are the characteristics of enamel hypoplasia?
Lack of contact between teeth
Rapid breakdown of occlusal surfaces
Yellow-brown stain appears with exposed dentin
What environmental factors can bring about enamel hypoplasia?
Vitamin deficiency
Metabolic disturbances during prenatal period
(Also genetically transferred)
What is hypoplastic enamel a dental manifestation of?
What is the early treatment of hypoparathyroidism and thus hypoplastic enamel?
Vitamin D
The condition which typically causes mottled discoloration and pitting of the enamel of permanent and deciduous teeth and results from excessive, prolonged ingestion of fluoride.
What surfaces have a trapezoidal outline?
Lingual and facial of all teeth
Proximal surfaces of Max. posterior crowns