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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the main purpose of ceiling joists?

Tie walls together.

How should ceiling joists be fastened to the wall plates?

2 Toenailed 82 mm nails to the wall plate.

Identify three ways in which ceiling joists can meet on top of an interior bearing wall?

1) Butted and cleated

2) lapped

3) Blocked to separate two joists by the width of the rafter

How is joist layout affected when joists are lapped over an interior wall?

The layout on one exterior wall will be offset by the thickness of the ceiling joists.

What must be done to the outside ends of the ceiling joists?

Tops of joists need to be angle cut to match roof slope.

What are stub joists?

Short joists that run 90 degrees to the regular joists. They are used on buildings with hip roofs where the regular joist would interfere with the rafters.

According to the national building code what is the minimum size of an attic access required for a single family home?

.32 m2 min no less than 500 mm or 20" on one side.

What must be done to the joists if an opening in the ceiling is wider than 2 joist spacings?

The joists must be doubled on either side of the opening that is wider than 2 joist spacing.

Where would a flush beam be required?

In an area where no support wall is located.

What is a strongback?

An L shaped brace fastened to the top of the ceiling joist to support and hold in place.

What would you do to the ceiling rafter if you use a dwarf wall to support the roof rafters?

Increase the thickness of the ceiling rafter by a minimum 25mm or rule of thumb increase by one dimensional thickness.

What is the ceiling joist span?

The edge of support to the edge of support. Or the inside of wall to the inside of wall.

What is the difference between a roof joist and a rafter?

A ceiling joist only supports the weight of the ceiling while a roof joist supports the ceiling an roof.

Where must the joints on ceiling joists be butted?

Over a load bearing wall.

When would you use a strongback?

When you are hanging something heavy such as a chandelier also for stiffening and support.

What are ribbons used for?

Only to provide oc spacing.

When roof slopes are 1:4 or less what must be done differently when determining ceiling joist size?

You must use the roof joist chart to determine the proper dimension for a ceiling joist.

Name the 3 ways that heat may be transferred.

1) Convection

2) Conduction

3) Radiation

Heat loss through walls is primarily by what method?


How can heat loss through walls be minimized?

Heat loss can be minimized be completely insulating stud cavities and applying rigid insulation to the exterior of the wall and by placing the studs further apart.

Why is it important to seal all electrical boxes in insulated ceilings?

To prevent warm air from escaping into the attic space.

How can heat loss through the floor frame be reduced

Use caulking or a foam sill gasket between the top of the foundation wall and the floor joists to seal any gaps.

What method is heat loss through concrete foundations?


How can convection heat loss be reduced at doors and windows?

Place insulation between the framing and windows or doorjambs

ensure weather stripping seals tightly.

What is a desirable characteristic of good insulating materials?

Many tiny cell or air spaces to slow down heat loss.

Why is batt insulation called friction fit?

The batts are slightly thicker than the stud cavities and are held in place by friction.

In residential construction where is loose fill insulation mainly used?

Horizontal spaces such as ceilings

Name 2 types of polystyrene insulation.

1) Extruded

2) Expanded

Which type of polystyrene is best suited for below grade use?


What system is used to judge a walls ability to resist the passage of sound?

Sound transmission class (STC) rating

Identify 3 ways to reduce sound transmission through walls.

1) Place sound absorbing material within the stud cavity

2) Increase the mass of the wall

3) Break the path of sound vibration

What is the dew point?

The temperature that condensation occurs.

Define the term air barrier.

An air barrier is any material that reduces the amount of air from inside or outside the building that moves through the walls and ceilings.

Define the term vapour barrier and give 3 examples.

A vapour barrier is any material that reduces the passage of moisture by diffusion. Poly is common but aluminum foil and some types of paint also act as vapour barriers.

What 2 products are common as wall sheathing membranes?

Black asphalt sheathing paper

House wrap such as Typar or Tyvek

Attic ventilation can be provided in which 3 locations?

Roof vents

Soffit vents

Gable end vents.

What type of truss allows for more insulation in the attic space?

High heel trusses allow for more insulation in the attic

How much should wall sheathing membrane overlap?

4" 100mm

How far should vapour barrier be lapped?

100mm 4"

What are 3 advantages of using spray foam?

1) Reduces noise

2) Adds structural strength

3) Eliminates drafts

How is heat lost through convection in a house?

Voids that allow air movement cause heat loss

How is heat lost through conduction?

Heat transfers through solid members. Long nails can cause frost spots.

Where does the air barrier get installed?

On the warm side of the wall 2/3rd in at least

What is the purpose of an air barrier?

To prevent interior moisture from contacting a cold surface and condensing.

What is a thermal barrier and what is its purpose?

Insulation is a thermal barrier used to create a thermal break and slow or stop the movement of air.

What is a weather or air barrier and what is its purpose?

A building wrap used as a second line of defense on the exterior against moisture that allows the flow of air but keep moisture out

What is the purpose of underlayment and flashing with roofing materials?

Integral part installed to maintain a watertight transition between the roofing system and the adjacent surfaces. IE walls and eavestrough.

What are 4 types of wall treatments used to prevent water penetration?

1)Drainage walls

2)Mass walls

3)Rain screen walls

4)Barrier walls

What are example of drainage walls?

Siding or stucco designed to repel the majority of rainwater.

What are some example of mass walls?

Concrete or masonry. Rely primarily on wall thickness and joint integrity to prevent penetration

What are the 3 components of a rainscreen wall system?

1 External cladding - Prevent bulk entry of water by shedding and absorbing

2) Drainage cavity - Allow for air space to prevent water transfer and drying

3) Internal drainage plane - a substrate that prohibits the movement of water to the dry zone. Rigid insulation

What is an example of a barrier wall?

Acrylic finished wall. - a continuous seal at the exterior face.

What are some weather barriers used in foundation wall systems?

Damp proofing membrane or coating on the concrete wall

Occasionally additives to the concrete mix make the concrete water tight.

Why would a moisture barrier be used under a concrete floor?

To prevent upward movement of ground moisture and soil gases

What is the purpose of underslab insulation?

Ground temperature are generally 10 to 15 degrees where room temps are around 20.

What is the difference between extruded and expanded polystyrene foam?

Extruded is denser with smaller air pocket and is suitable for below grade installation.

Expanded is lighter and not as dense with larger air pockets. lower insulation value.

What is the best method for sound proofing walls?

Double wall construction with double layers of drywall and a 25mm air space between walls.

What are some example of moisture sources within a dwelling.

Human occupants

clothes drying

floor washing




What is relative humidity?

The amount of water in the air relative to the amount of water it could hold at a given temperature before condensing.

How should membrane air barriers be sealed at joints or openings?

Sealant tape or accoustical sealant.

What are different styles of walls and roofs that allow for more insulation?

Staggered studs allow for more insulation and less heat loss through conduction as the stud does not touch both wall surface.

Double wall construction or two parallel walls separated by another layer of insulation

High heeled roof trussed are raised allowing for more insulation to the edge of the roof area.