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25 Cards in this Set

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French term 'vanguard', the first troops to engage the enemy in battle. It conjures the image of a small faced of artist waging war against the conservative tastes of resistant audience


illustrates the increasing use of nontraditional scale forms in the aryl decades of the 20th century

whole-tone scales

based on 6 notes, each a whole tone apart

pentatonic scales

based on five notes, associated with east asia music

ocatonic scales

alternates between half and whole steps and contains within itself all possible intervals


four note units that together make up the ocatonic scale.

Quartal hormonies

chords built on the interval of a fourth rather than a third. Charles Ives used them


the absence of a tonal center

serial composition

technique developed by Schoenberg in the early 1920s. Based on the premise that an established unit of music, most often a row, or series, of 12 different pitches- can be varied repeatedly in such a way as to provide the structural basis for an entire work


twelve tone serial compostion, uses as its basic unity a row of 12 different pitches drawn from the 12 pitches of the chromatic octave


the basic form of the row


the row played upside down: a rise of a major third in the prime form on the row becomes a fall of a major third; a fall of a minor second in the prime form becomes a rise of a minor second, and so on.


the row played backward, beginning with the last note and ending with the first

retrograde inversion

the inverted form of the row played backward


shows at a glance all the 48 possibilities of this row in the transposed versions o p, i, r, and ri

pithc class

each form of the row begins is designated by a number

social realism

a readily accessible style that evokes the music of the people an overwhelmingly optimist tone


a successor to music gall and vaudeville perofmrances in which a potpourri of acts these shows


intervals smaller than a half step


one of the rows hexachords its first six or last six notes, commonly referred to as hexachords A and B- can be combined with one of the hexachords of an inverted, retrograde, or retrograde inverted form of the same row without producing any duplication of pithces

integral serialism/ total serialism

extending the parameters of serial composition beyond pitch to include such elements as rhythm and dynamics

aleatory music

term comes form the latin alea meaning 'die' and music involves a 'roll of the dice' that is chance. the idea of writing music by chance, even by a literal throw of the dice, was by no means new in the 20th C


simultaneous juxtaposition of contrasting triads or keys


used by hindimith 'music of ruse' challenge to concept of musical autonomy. pedagogical music and works for amateurs

The I Ching

an ancient chinese text used for divination. cage used the text to make every msucial decision. cage associated decisions with different symbols in the system, deterring the symbol using coin tossing.