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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is aphorism?

Aphorism is the shortening of music to avoid repetition, essentially conveying the same ideas without "decadent" decoration.

Used to refer to the work of Anton Webern of the Second Viennese School.

What are string harmonics?

High pitches achieved through lightly touching the string of a string instrument, enabling the creation of pitches two octaves above the regular ones.

What is col legno?

Playing string instruments with the back of a bow instead of the horse hair. Produces strange, unstable pitches.

What is the Darmstadt School?

A school of avant garde composers in Darmstadt, Germany. Included Pierre Boulez.

What is integral serialism?

Also called control music, integral serialism is a musical system which extends serial procedures to all realms of music (pitch, dynamics, instrumentation, etc.). Contrasts with classical serialism as the latter only extends serial procedures to pitch.

Emphasized logic.

What is pointillistic texture?

Music which is seemingly random, though thoroughly organized in an abstract sense. As notes are isolated in separate ranges, there is no melody.

Who was an important early composer for the percussion ensemble?

John Cage.

What is a prepared piano? Who invented it?

An extended technique for piano accomplished through inserting some desired objects between piano strings.

Invented by John Cage.

What is aleatory music? Who advocated it?

Aleatory music, also called chance music, is music in which some elements are left to chance or the performer. This could include the composition, performance, or both.

John Cage was an advocate of this type of music, which fit well with his prepared piano.

What is electoacoustic music?

Music which implements electronically produced sounds.

What is musique concrete?

Electroacoustic music made with recorded sounds that can be found naturally in the world. Producers take such sound objects and manipulate them to fit their creative needs.

Who was an important early composer of musique concrete?

Pierre Schaeffer. French National Radio.

What transformations to sound objects were possible within 1950's musique concrete?

1. Editing out portions of sound.

2. Varying playback speed.

3. Playing the sound backwards.

4. "Overdubbing" by playing sounds over one another.

What differentiates music concrete from electronic music?

Music concrete limits sounds used to recorded sounds (natural), while electronic music allows for electronically created sounds (artificial).

What is additive synthesis in electronic music?

The combination of sine waves ("pure" pitches) to create sounds with artificial overtone structures. The original pitches are created through sine wave generators.

What is substractive synthesis in electronic music?

The filtering of complex sounds (usually white noise containing all pitches) into specific sounds.

What are the two approaches to combining electronic music with live performance?

Mixed music: live performers playing alongside pre-recorded music.

Live electronic music: sound produced by the performer is modified live, with the modification being controlled by the instrumentalist.

What are sound-mass compositions?

Works which reject traditional melody, harmony, and rhythm in favour of "sound masses". These are comprised of groups of sound which are sometimes static and sometimes dynamic. The interaction of these sound masses is the focus of the work.

What is micropolyphony?

A textural effect which involves the use of non-imitative and imitative polyphony to hide individual parts in a complexity of sonic activity.

Where is the Studio di Fonologia? Which relevant composer served as co-director?

Milan. Berio.

What was Berio's fantasia genre?

Fantasia as a genre term always denotes a single-movement work for solo instrument, characterized by an imaginary, formally innovative, and virtuosic and perhaps improvisatory character.

Berio's sequenzas meet these criteria.

What was the vitaphone system? Who invented it?

The vitaphone system was a mechanism which enabled sound to be synced with motion pictures. Ended the era of silent film.

Invented by Warner Brother Studios.

What are the four functions of music in film?

1. Establishes mood.

2. Sets time and place.

3. Runs counter to the action (creates unease).

4. Character establishment and development.

What is the purpose of a leitmotif in film scores?

Often used to symbolize characters and show character development.

What are the two principle types of film music?

Source music (diegetic): music which is supposed to be occurring within the plot itself (characters should hear it).

Underscoring (nondiegetic): music which is external to the plot, and solely for the audience.

For which film score did Tan Dun win a Grammy?

Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon.

Why is Tan Dun correctly described is internationalist and polystylistic?

His diverse background and combination of Western/Eastern and Classical/Modern styles of music and composition.

How is minimalism generally characterized?

Incessant repetition of short musical motives.

What is phase shifting in minimalist works?

The slow shift in rhythm over time in a minimalist piece. Very clear progression, yielding the name "process music" because the process is clear.

Is minimalism a genre?

No. Style term.

What is the difference between classical minimalism and postminimalism?

Classical minimalism was focused on phase shifting, and was consonant, rhythmically simple, and texturally transparent for the most part.

Postminimalism is more complex in terms of ensemble and scoring, textural activity, and faster in terms of development.

Why is the term spiritual minimalism used to describer Arvo Part's works?

His combination of minimalist composition techniques and his emphasis on sacred works.

What is quotation music?

A style term for music which refers to other musical or literary works.

Name the 6 periods covered in class and their time frames.

1. Medieval (450-1450).

2. Renaissance (1450-1600).

3. Baroque (1600-1750).

4. Classical (1750-1800).

5. Romantic (1800-1900).

6. Modern (20th and 21st century).

Name two composers from the medieval period.

Hildegard von Bingen. Perotin.

Name two composers from the renaissance period.

Josquin Desprez. Michael Praetorius.

Name two composers from the baroque period.

Johann Bach. Atonio Vivaldi.

Name two composers from the classical period.

Beethoven. Mozart.

Name two composers from the romantic period.

Frederic Chopin. Richard Wagner.

Name two composers from the modern period.

Schoenberg. Messiaen.

Tan Dun. Part.

How old is the first extant piece of music?

Was made in 800 AD.

When did Bach die?

July 28th, 1750.

When did 4'33 by John Cage come out?