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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1) Streamlining Processes
2) Minimizing Waste
3) Process Reengineering
4) Introducing Automation
Ways to make the system more efficient
Identify the need, study feasibility, define the scope of the system, and allocate the resources
Phase 1: System Planning
Study the existing system, determine requirements, structure those requirements, create alternative designs, and then select the best alternative
Phase 2: System Analysis
Convert the recommended solution from systems analysis into logical and physical specifications
Phase 3: System Design
Get required hardware/software, write the code, test the code, train users, operation, and maintenance
Phase 4: System Implementation and Operation
Users, reports, forms, and procedures
Sources of information for determining requirements
Joint Application Design (JAD), Group Support Systems (GSS), CASE tools, Prototyping
Modern Methods for determining requirements
Business Process Reengineering (BPR), Disruptive Technologies
Radical Methods for determining requirements
No pre-specified answers
Open Ended Questions
Multiple choice
Closed ended questions
Valid, reliable, easy to use
Characteristics of good questionairres
Mostly closed ended questions
Can be administered via email or over phone
Cost more but gain more information
Supplements interviews
Obtain first hand knowledge
Difficult to get unbiased data
Direct observation
Work Procedures
Documentation of current system
Business forms
Types of documents to be examined
1) Problems with the existing system
2) Opportunities to meet a new need
3) Direction for organization
4) Names of big shots
5) Organization's values
6) Special circumstances in information processing
7) Rules for data processing
Information discovered from documentation
1) Brings together key users
2) Collects system requirements simultaneously from these users
3) Is conducted offsite
Joint Application Design (JAD)
Repetitive process in which a rudimentary version of the system is built to develop concrete specifications for THE ULTIMATE SYSTEM! Replaces or augments SDLC
1) Session Leader
2) Users
3) Managers
4) Sponsor
5) Systems Analysts
6) Scribe
7) IS Staff
Participants in JAD
1) Meeting can be difficult to manage
2) A few participants may dominate the meeting
3) Personal styles and political issues influence participation
4) It's expensive
Disadvantages of JAD
1) User requests are not clear
2) Few users are involved in the system
3) Designs are complex and require concrete form
4) There is a history of communication problems between analysts and users
5) The tools are easily available to build the prototype
Times when prototyping is useful
1) Avoids formal documentation
2) Difficult to adapt to a more general user audience
3) Sharing data with other systems may not be considered
4) SDLC checks are often bypassed
Drawbacks of prototyping
Search for and implement radical change in a business to achieve breakthrough improvements in products and services
Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
Technologies that enable the breaking of business rules that are slowing down an organization from making radical changes
Disruptive technologies
1) Reduces the length of analysis and design phases
2) Reduces cost of system development by correctly defining and prioritizing system requirements
3) Increases the user satisfaction with the system
4) You now have a document of the existing system and features of the proposed systems
Results of JAD
1) Reorganize the flow of data in major sections of an organization
2) Eliminate unnecessary steps
3) Combine steps
4) Become more responsive to future change
5) Reduce work force needed
6) Build customer relationships
7) Increase efficiency and profits
Goals of BPR
1) Shortened development time
2) Increased user participation and satisfaction
3) Developed concrete specifications for ultimate system (but do not build it)
Goals of prototyping
Interviews with individuals or groups, questionairres, observing users, business document and procedure analysis
Traditional methods for determining requirements
Making this system more efficient and helping managers to make better decisions
The job of a systems analyst
Relaxation of Constraints
Attention to detail
Reframing: view in new ways
Impertinence: question everything
Impartiality: find the best solution for the organization
Requirements for information gathering