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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bidirectional Influences

Influences that function in two directions

ex. environment can effect a child and the child can also effect their environment

Cohort effects
effects that result from a group of people growing up at a particular time
Gene expression
The expression of certain genes can activate or deactivate a gene that codes for a certain characteristic or even a disorder.

Environmental factors that can affect prenatal development

ex. alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome

When the neurons begin to develop in the fetus in great numbers
Zone of proximal development
Phase when children want to learn a new skill but aren't successful at it yet.

The assistance parents provide their children with when the child is learning.

It gets removed gradually as the child becomes more competent

when a child will try to fit new information into their current understanding of information related to the new information
When children modify their current understanding to include the new information
Newborn animals will begin following the first moving object near their nest. This ensures that the babies are being taken care of and are protected from predators

When you don't respond to a stimulus because it is harmless. The strength of your behavior decreases as well as your levels of serotonin

When you respond to a stimulus because it is uncommon and most likely dangerous or irritating. The strength of your behavior is increased along with your serotonin levels
The behavior done to receive an award
Reinforcing behaviors that are close to the desired behavior until the animal performs the desired behavior
Biological preparedness
The fact that we are evolutionarily predisposed to fear certain stimuli more often than others
Sensory memory
Information enters via the senses and remains for a very short period of time until it is transferred to short term memory
Short Term Memory
Information can last about 5 to 20 seconds in short term memory without rehearsal. It is also called working memory because it is where we process or think about information before it can be transferred to long term memory
Maintenance rehearsal
Simply repeating information over and over
Elaborative processing
When we link stimuli to something else in a meaningful way that helps us understand it
Pairs pieces of information together in ways that make them easier to understand. This process can help us retain information in our short term memory for a longer period of time
Primacy Effects
Remembering things that you saw first
Recency Effects
Remembering things that you saw most recently
Semantic Memory

Part of explicit long term memory

Things that we consciously know about the world

Episodic Memory

Part of explicit (conscious) long term memory

Recall of events

Procedural Memory

Part of implicit(can't deliberately recall) long term memory

Memory for motor skills and habits

Context dependent learning
The external context in which the material was learned is the place where the person will be most likely to remember it
Tip of the tongue phenomenon
When someone is experiencing this they might know the first letter of the word they are trying to think of or how many syllables it contains
The part of the brain that has been found to help take short term memory and store it in long term memory
Retrograde Amnesia
Inability to remember things from the past
Anterograde Amnesia
Inability to form new memories
knowledge structures that we have stored in our memories
The basic meaning or context of information you are given
Source monitoring
Unconscious mental test that we perform to determine if a certain piece of information we remember is real or from some other source like a movie or a dream
Flashbulb memory
Memories that are so vivid that people appear to recount them in remarkable detail
Infantile Amnesia

Humans cant usually remember anything that happened to them before they were at least

3 1/2 years old

This could be due to the underdevelopment of the hippocampus, lack of self awareness, or the inability to understand events well enough to encode them into long term memory

Mental age
The age you are relative to your intelligence
Deviation IQ
How much your IQ deviates from the norm (100)
General Intelligence

The overall score you get on an intelligence test

Crystalized intelligence + fluid intelligence

Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence that consists of multiple abilities and styles
Fluid intelligences
When we find new ways to solve problems or solve problems we haven't seen before
Crystalized intelligences
Knowledge that we have accumulated over time
Stereotype Threat
The fear that we may confirm a stereotype
In what ways do we change physically during adolescence?

We tend to grow in many ways some of which are:

Pubic hair growth, genital growth, height increase

Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
Parents will provide scaffolding to their children so they can learn something new but children will only learn when they are in the zone of proximal development
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Proposed that cognitive change is a result of a child's need to achieve equilibration or a balance between their experience of the world and their understanding of it
What is the first stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development?

Sensorimotor stage - Birth to 2 yrs

The child does not have object permanence or cannot understand that if something is covered up it is still there even though they cannot see it

What is the second stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development?

Preoperational Stage- 2 to 7 yrs

They have object permanence but are egocentric and cannot perform mental operations

What is the third stage of Piaget's cognitive development?

Concrete operational- 7 to 11 yrs

They are no longer egocentric and can perform mental operations but struggle with abstract thinking

What is the fourth stage of Piaget's cognitive development?

Formal Operations Stage- Adolescence

Children can perform hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and now and begin to think about abstract questions

What are some criticisms of Piaget's theory?

Development is more continuous than stage-like

Children can complete the tasks earlier than Piaget thought (task demand)

Some tasks are culturally biased

Some adults and adolescents cannot perform formal operational tasks

What are some other tests (besides Piaget's) that evaluate an infant's and child's cognitive development?

Impossible task and looking time: Mouse behind the screen

High amplitude sucking task: alertness equals more sucking

sally ann doll task

Why do adolescents appear to be lacking in impulse control?
Their frontal lobes aren't fully developed
What changes occur in cognitive function during adulthood?

Ability to recall things declines after age 30

processing speed decreases with age

Free recall ability declines

-What did you eat for dinner vs. did you have this for dinner (1st is harder to remember as we age)

What is temperament?
Basic social, emotional, and behavioral style
What is attachment?
a strong emotional connection we share with those we feel closest to
How is attachment assessed?
The Strange Situation Procedure
What are the four different types of attachment?

Secure: Seeks comfort from the mother upon her return

Insecure anxious: the child is unsure whether or not the mother will provide comfort

Insecure Avoidant: Child ignores the mother because she was never available to provide comfort

Disorganized: children who have mixed behaviors

What is the most important aspect of the method used to test attachment?
The most important aspect of the Strange Situation test is how the child responds to the mother upon their reunion
What do psychologists infer from the attachment test?
The attentiveness of the parent to the child or that the child's temperament will influence how the attentive the mother is
What occurred during Harlow's study of infant rhesus monkeys?
they were able to use observational learning to make the monkeys afraid of snakes both real and stuffed but were not able to make them fear flowers
What are the four different parenting styles?

Permissive-high support and low control

Authoritative-High support and high control

Authoritarian- Low support and high control

Uninvolved- low support and low control

What are some differences and similarities between families with same-sex and opposite-sex parents?
They are the same in all aspects except for the fact that families with same sex parents carry a stigma that can have a negative affect on the child's well being
What is gender identity?

your sense of being male or female

What are gender roles?
Stereotypical behaviors associated with being male or female
What did Kohlberg say indicates your level of morality?
He would read the participants a scenario and determine by their reasoning not their answer what type of moral development they have reached
What is classical conditioning?
Training people to respond to a previously neutral stimulus in the same way as another stimulus it has been paired with that elicits an automatic response
What is operant conditioning?
Learning controlled by the consequences of the organisms behavior. The organisms behavior is shaped by what comes after the behavior
Neutral Stimulus
Stimulus that elicits no response
Unconditioned stimulus
Stimulus that elicits an automatic response
Unconditioned Response
Reflexive response that results from the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus
the neutral stimulus after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus many times
Conditioned response
Response that the neutral stimulus elicits after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus many times
The process by which the conditioned response is lost

What are some similarities between operant and classical conditioning?

Both have pairing
What are some differences between operant and classical conditioning?

Classical: the response is elicited automatically, the consequence is provided unconditionally, autonomic nervous system is used

Operant: response is voluntary, consequence is contingent on behavior, uses skeletal muscles

Positive Reinforcement
uses pleasant rewards to increase the frequency of a positive behavior
Negative reinforcement
Occurrence of a behavior is increased by removing an unpleasant stimulus
Positive punishment
any stimulus that repressed a behavior
Negative punishment
removal of a stimulus in response to an unwanted behavior so that behavior will be decreased
What did Watson do in his study with Little Albert?
He classically conditioned him to fear fuzzy animals
What did Bandura's Bobo doll experiment demonstrate?
It confirmed that people can also learn through observational learning
What are the three memory systems?


Short Term

Long Term

What are the three memory processes?





What did Karl Lashley's study with rats demonstrate?
He found that making the lesions in the rats brains did not effect their entire memory so he concluded that memory is stored in many parts of the brain
Is it easy or difficult to implant false memories?
Is eyewitness identification accurate?
No it is subject to source monitoring errors and others can influence how you remember things
What is Spearman's general intelligence theory?

He said that general intelligence formed the bedrock from which all other mental abilities formed

He said intelligence has two factors: General intelligence and specific abilities that are part of your general intelligence (whole pizza w/4 slices)

What is Sternberg's multiple intelligence theory?
He said that there are 3 distinct types of intelligence (3 pizzas)
What is Gardner's multiple intelligence theory?
Says there are 8 frames of mind which are completely separate from each other (8 pizzas)
What was the eugenics movement?
Encouraged people with good genes to reproduce and those with bad genes to not reproduce because they wanted to have a smarter population
How is IQ measured today?
IQ tests
What can IQ scores predict?
Academic success, occupation, and job performance
How were the first real intelligence tests developed?
They wanted to measure overall thinking ability so they tested how well one can think abstractly
Why were the first real intelligence tests developed?
The first real intelligence tests were made to assess children in school so those who need extra help could get what they needed
What do twin and adoption studies tell us about the heritability of IQ?
IQ is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors