• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Surgically created colonic opening (stoma) through the abdominal wall to permit defecation.
Crohn's Disease
A chronic, granulomatous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology involving the small or large intestine that can result in diarrhea, strictures, fistulas, and malabsorption.
Dietary Fiber
Edible plant materials not digested by the enzymes in the upper digestive tract of humans; consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, lignin, starchy materials, and oligosaccharides that are partially resistant to digestive enzymes.
Presence of herniations of the mucous membrane through the muscular layers of the colonic wall
Inflammation of the diverticula
An abnormal passage between two internal organs or from an internal organ to the skin surface of the body.
High fiber diet
A diet containing more than 25-38 g of dietary fiber per day.
A decrease in the amount of the intestinal enzyme lactase.
Ileal Pouch
Surgical creation of a small reservoir, using folds of the distal ileum, which is then attached to the rectum.
Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) of the ileum through the abdominal wall.
IBD (irritable bowel disease)
A general term for inflammatory disease of the bowel, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
IBS (irritable bowel syndrome)
An abnormal stooling pattern associated with symptoms of intestinal dysfunction that persists for more than 3 months of the year.
Lactose Intolerance
the body cannot easily digest lactose, a type of natural sugar found in milk and dairy products. This is not the same thing as a food allergy to milk.
MCTs (medium-chain triglycerides)
Triacylglycerols with fatty acids of 8 and 10 carbons in length-short enough to be absorbed directly into the portal blood.
SBS (short-bowel syndrome)
A malabsorption syndrome resulting from major resections of the small bowel; characterized by diarrhea, steatorrhea, and malnutrition.
Exessive amounts of fat in the feces, as seen in malabsorption syndromes.
Soluble Fiber
Attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in oat bran, barley, nuts, seeds, beans, lentils, peas, and some fruits and vegetables. It is also found in psyllium, a common fiber supplement. Some types of soluble fiber may help lower cholesterol, but the effect on heart disease is not known
Ulcerative colitis
An inflammatory disease of the colonic mucosa.
FODMAPs (fementable oligo, di- and monosaccharides and polyols
Poorly absorbed in the small intestine, highly osmotic,and rapidly fermented by bacteria.
SIBO (small intestine bacteria overgrowth)
Refers to a condition in which abnormally large numbers of bacteria (at least 100,000 bacteria per ml of fluid) are present in the small intestine and the types of bacteria in the small intestine resemble more the bacteria of the colon than the small intestine.
Proteins that carry lipids in the blood and control the metabolism of lipoprotein molecules.
Any of the lesions of the atherosclerosis; synonym for plaque.
Disease characterized by thickening and narrowing of the arterial walls caused by inflammation and the accumulation of oxidized cholesterol, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts below the intima, or innermost layer of the artery.
Atherosclerosis and thrombus cuaed complications; major cause of angina, heart attack, and sudden death.
Bile-acid sequestrant
Medication that absorbs bile acids, which prevents absorption back to the bloodstream, thereby lowering blood cholesterol levels.
The lipoprotein particle that transports dietary fat from the intestines into the circulation.
CHD/CAD (coronary heart disease or coronary artery disease)
Disease characterized by impaired blood flow in the coronary arteries, which can result in angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden death.
C-reactive protein
A protein synthesized in the liver in the acute phase response to inflammation; marker of inflammation in cardiovascular disease.
ASHD (arteriosclerotic heart disease)
A thickening and hardening of the walls of the coronary arteries.
CVD (cardiovascular disease)
A class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cardiac cachexia
A serious complication of heart failure associated with high mortality rates and characterized by unintentional weight loss (body wasting) due to a loss of fat, muscle, and bone.
DASH diet (dietary approach to stop hypertension)
Low fat eating plan that is high in fruits, vegetables, and dairy foods; shown to reduce blood pressure.
An abnormal pattern of blood lipoproteins that increases risk for heart disease.
Perceived difficulty with breathing; shortness of breath, the hallmark of heart failure.
Essential/primary HTN
Hypertension of unknown etiology.
Secondary HTN
Elevated blood pressure secondary to presence of another disease.
Fatty streak
Earliest lesion in atherosclerosis; cholesterol rich macrophages and smooth-muscle cells in the intima of an artery.
Relating to a blood pressure that indicates an increased risk for progression to hypertension; defined as a systolic blood pressure between 120 and 139 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure between 80 and 89 mm Hg.
Diastolic BP
Blood pressure during the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle.
Systolic BP
Blood pressure during the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle.
HDL (high density lipoproteins)
A group of plasma lipoproteins containing mostly protein and less cholesterol and triglycerides, high levels of which are associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease.
LDL (low density lipoproteins)
Class of lipoproteins that are predominant cholesterol carriers in the blood and considered atherogenic; main target for interventions because high levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
VLDL (very low density lipoproteins)
Primary triglyceride-carrying lipoproteins that transport endogenous lipid from the liver to the peripheral circulation.
Ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids.
An amino acid metabolite of methionine that has been identified as a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
IDLs (intermediate-density lipoproteins)
Products of very low-density lipoprotein catabolism that are precursors of low-density lipoproteins and considered atherogenic; not routinely measured.
Insufficient blood flow in a tissue resulting from functional constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel.
Trans-fatty acids
common name for unsaturated fat with trans-isomer (E-isomer) fatty acid(s). Because the term refers to the configuration of a double carbon-carbon bond, trans fats are sometimes monounsaturated or polyunsaturated, but never saturated. Trans fats do exist in nature but also occur during the processing of polyunsaturated fatty acids in food production
Particles that, by containing varying amounts of triglyceride, cholesterol, phopholipids, adn protein, solubilize lipids for transport into the blood stream.
Early lesions seen in atherosclerosis; composed of cholesterol, calcium, and fibrin.
a class of drugs used to lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol in the liver.
Occlusion or hemorrhage of a cerebral artery resulting in impaired function, tissue damage, or death.
Lack of oxygen to the brain causing a brief loss of consciousness.
Respiratory distress while in a recumbent position.
Nitric oxide
Key vasodilator produced by endothelial cells; also known as endothelium-derived relaxing factor or EDRF; prevents low-density lipoprotein oxidation.
A group of blood factors, primarily platelets and fibrin, which, if small, can contribute to the growth of plaque and, if large, can obstruct a blood vessel, resulting in angina, myocardial infarction, or sudden death.
Metabolic syndrome
Constellation of risk factors-glucose intolerance, hypertension, abdominal obesity, low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and hypercholesterolemia-that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
TLC Diet (therapeutic lifestyle changes)
nonpharmacologic component of the
Third Report of the NCEP and ATP III,
which emphasizes diet, physical activity,
behavior change and weight loss (if
indicated). The ATP III guidelines
specifically target low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (LDL) due to its strong,
positive correlation with CHD risk
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in body tissues such as lungs, ankles, or feet.
Left ventricular hypertrophy
Enlargement of the left ventricle of the heart; major risk factor for heart failure.
Omega-3 fatty acids
are fats commonly found in marine and plant oils. They are polyunsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) starting after the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. The fatty acids have two ends—the acid (COOH) end and the methyl (CH3) end. The location of the first double bond is counted from the methyl end, which is also known as the omega (ω) end or the n end.
fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain and all of the remainder of the carbon atoms in the chain are single-bonded. By contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids have more than one double bond.
contain more than one double bond in their backbone.
Saturated fatty acids
no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain
Cholesterol deposits (from LDL) seen on tendons and elbows.
Blood pressure
Force exerted per unit area on the walls of arteries.
HTN (hypertension)
Persistently high arterial blood pressure; defined as systolic blood pressure above 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure above 90 mm Hg.
Chest pain or discomfort that occurs if an area of your heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood.
Myocardial infarction
Ischemia in one or more of the coronary arteries result in gin necrosis, tissue damage, and sometimes sudden death.
Familial hypercholesterolemia
A genetic defect in the ability to metabolize low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; characterized by hypercholesterolemia > 300 mg/dl, xanthomas, advanced atherosclerosis and premature death.
The fecal contents, including bacteria and any remaining gastrointestinal secretions and foods not digested or absorbed.