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65 Cards in this Set

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1. Place the following events in order to describe the standard scientific method:(experiment, conclusion, analysis of data, hypothesis, question).

1. Question


2. Hypothesis


3.Experiment


4. Analysis of Data


5. Conclusion

2. Scientists do NOT always follow the steps of the scientific method in exactly the same order. Why not?

Sometimes during the course of an experiment, we realize something doesn’t work and we need to go back to our question/and redesign our experiment

3. Give 4 reasons scientists might use a model

1.To save money


2.To save time


3.Too dangerous


4. Too big / Too small

4. What is a scientific theory? What is its purpose?

Explanation of HOW/WHY a phenomenon happens in nature

5. What is a scientific law? What is its purpose?

DESCRIBES A RELATIONSHIP or PATTERN IN NATURE (WHAT)

6. What is a hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a PREDICTION you can TEST.

7. Why might scientific knowledge, theories,or laws change over time?

If new evidence is received that shows the theory/law needs to be changed (NEW TECHNOLOGY)

What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a PREDICTION you can test. A scientific theory is an explanation of WHY something happens that has already been tested many times, in many areas of science, with lots of evidence supporting it.

What is a scientific observation? Give 2 examples.

Something you notice with your senses


Example: There are 5 fingers on the monkey’s hand. OR The tree is 6.2 meters tall

10. What is a scientific inference? Give 2 examples.

An explanation or prediction you make based on prior knowledge and observations. Example: The woman is smiling because she is happy. The baby is crying because it is hungry.

11. What is a constant in an experiment?

The factors that are kept the same in an experiment

12. Why must you keep all variables except theindependent variable constant to have a controlled experiment?

TO KEEP IT FAIR AND MAKE SURE THAT YOUR RESULTS ARE ACCURATE AND THAT YOUR RESULTS ARE BECAUSE OF THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE AND NOT SOMETHING ELSE

13. What is a control group in an experiment?

The group that is treated like you would normally – you don’t give it the independent variable

14. What is an independent variable?

THE ONE THING YOU CHANGE IN AN EXPERIMENT (what you are testing)

15. What is a dependent variable?

THE VARIABLE THAT IS BEING MEASURED/ RECORDED TO SEE IF YOUR EXPERIMENT WORKED –the data you collect

16. List 4 characteristics of a good, scientifically sound, experiment

1. CLEAR PROCEDURE


2. LARGE SAMPLE SIZE


3. CAN BE REPRODUCED


4. PEER REVIEWED

17. Identify the variables in the following scenario: A tree farmer wanted to see if adding fertilizer to his fields would help his trees grow faster so he could sell them more quickly. 100 pine tree seedlings were planted in a field and divided into 2 groups. Group A was given 2 liters of water every day for 3 years just like the farmer usually did.Group B was given 2 liters of a mixture of water + fertilizer every day for 3 years. At the end of the 3 years, the height of the trees in each group were measured and averaged. Group A had an average height of 1 meter tall. Group B had an average height of 1.5 meters tall.

a. What question was the farmer testing? Does adding fertilizer make trees grow faster?


b. What was his hypothesis? Adding fertilizer WILL make trees grow faster


c. What was the independent variable? FERTILIZER ADDED


d. What was the dependent variable? TREE HEIGHT


e. What was the control group? GROUP A(just like normal)


f. What was the experimental test group? GROUP B (got fertilizer)


g. What were some constants in the test? AMOUNT OF WATER, AMOUNT OF FERTILIZER, TYPE OF TREES,


h. What conclusion should the farmer draw from his experiment? HYPOTHESIS WAS SUPPORTED FERTILIZER MADE TREES TALLER

18. What are the 3 domains of life?

1. Archaea


2. Bacteria


3. Eukarya

19. What are the two parts of a scientific name?(Which comes first? Which is capitalized?)

GENUS and SPECIES – (Genus is always capitalized and goes first)

20. Place the following levels of classification in order from largest to smallest (genus, kingdom, species, domain, class, family, order, phylum).

1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species

21. The classification of organisms changes as we discover new information. What is one way technology has helped scientists determine how closely related organisms truly are?

WE CAN COMPARE THEIR DNA NOW

22. What are the 8 characteristics that an organism must have to be considered a living thing?

1. Cells, 2. DNA 3. Reproduce 4. Grow/Develop 5. Respond to stimuli 6. adapt to change 7.Use Energy 8.maintain homeostasis

23. Why are viruses not considered to be alive?

THEY DON’T HAVE CELLS AND CAN’T REPRODUCE WITHOUT A HOST

24. Unicellular

AN ORGANISM WITH ONLY ONE CELL


ex: BACTERIA and PROTISTS

25. Multicellular

AN ORGANISM WITH MANY CELLS


ex: PLANTS, ANIMALS

26. Prokaryote

An organism WITHOUT a nucleus


ex: ALL BACTERIA ARE PROKARYOTES

27. Eukaryote

An organism WITH a nucleus


ex: PLANTS, ANIMALS, FUNGI, PROTISTS

28. AUTOTROPH

AN ORGANISM THAT CAN MAKE ITS OWN FOOD


EX: PLANTS and Euglena

29. Heterotroph

AN ORGANISM THAT CANNOT MAKE ITS OWN FOOD


Example: ANIMALS

30. Compare and contrast viruses and bacteria

Viruses Only NON LIVING A-Cellular REPRODUCE IN A HOST USUALLY HARMFUL ANTIBIOTICS DO NOT WORK


Both: PATHOGENS MICROSCOPIC


Bacteria Only: LIVING UNICELLULAR (ONE CELL) BINARY FISSION USUALLY HELPFUL ANTIBIOTICS KILL THEM

31. Cell

The basic unit of structure and function in living things


Ex: neuron, muscle cell, skin cell, blood cell

32. Tissue

A group of similar cells that work together to perform similar functions


Ex: Nerve tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue

33. Organ

A group of similar tissues that work together to perform similar functions


Example: brain, heart, lungs

34. Organ System

A group of similar organs that work together to perform similar functions


Example: Nervous system, digestive system

35. Organism

Any living thing


ex: dog or human

36. homeostasis

When an organism keeps its internal environment stable even though the external environment changes


Example: Body shivering to bring temp up when cold outside

37. Mitosis

The process where cells divide to increase their numbers


Example: Skin cells divide to repair a cut

38. Ribosome

PRODUCING PROTEINS

39. Chloroplast

ABSORB LIGHT ENERGY AND MANUFACTURE FOOD THROUGH PHOTOSYNTHESIS in PLANTS

40. Mitochondria

CONVERT FOOD AND OXYGEN INTO ENERGY THROUGH CELLULAR RESPIRATION

41. Nucleus

CONTROL THE CELL AND CONTAIN THE DNA

42. Vacuole

Stores water for the cell

43. Cell Membrane

Controls what goes into and out of the cell

44. Cell Wall

Provides structure and protects the cell of PLANTS

45. Cytoplasm

Supports the organelles and moves nutrients around cell

46. What are two structures found in plant cells but not animal cells?

CELL WALL AND CHLOROPLAST

47. Place the levels of structural organization in order from smallest to largest (organs, cells, tissues, organ systems,organisms, organelles, molecules, atoms)

1. Atoms 2. molecules 3.organelles 4.cells


5. tissues 6.organs 7. organ system 8. organism

48. In a multicellular organism, at what stage of development do the body cells differentiate? What are the 4 main cell types?

Cells differentiate in the EMBRYONIC stage into either 1. connective, 2. epithelial, 3. muscle, or 4. nervous types

49. Circulatory System

Pump/transport nutrients and oxygen around the body

50. Respiratory System

Bring in oxygen and push out carbon dioxide

51. Nervous System

Sense and control body

52. Skeletal System

Support,protect, aid in movement, produce blood

53. Musculatory System

Movement

54. Digestive System

Break down food into nutrients the body needs

55. Excretory System

Get rid of waste

56. Reproductive System

Create offspring

57. Endocrine System

Produce hormones that regulate body functions

58. Immune System

Protect body from pathogens, diseases, and infections

59. Integumentary System

Temperature regulation, protection, makes vitamin D

60. Transporting Nutrients Through Body

DIGESTIVE system breaks food down into smaller molecules and nutrients and CIRCULATORY system transports them through the blood stream to the cells

61. Transporting Oxygen Through Body

RESPIRATORY system bring oxygen into the lungs and CIRCULATORY system transports it through the blood stream

62. Exercising

DIGESTIVE system break down food to nutrients for energy while NERVOUS system sends signals to MUSCULATORY system to contract pulling on the SKELETAL system to make you move and your INTEGUMENTARY system lets you sweat to cool down

63. Fight or Flight Response

NERVOUS system senses an alarm, ENDOCRINE system starts producing adrenaline which triggers your CIRCULATORY system to make your heart beat faster and your RESPIRATORY system to make your lungs breathe faster to get more nutrients and oxygen to your MUSCULATORY system so you can fight or run

64. Warming your body up when you are cold

INTEGUMENTARY system senses cold and send a message to the NERVOUS system that the temperature has dropped. Nervous system sends a message to the MUSCULATORY system to make you shiver to warm up.

65. Maintaining Blood Sugar

DIGESTIVE system breaks down food into smaller molecules, ENDOCRINE system senses change in blood sugar levels and tell pancreas to release insulin CIRCULATORY system transports the insulin and blood sugar.