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87 Cards in this Set

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Which are the major antigen presenting cells in the primary humoral and cell-mediated immune responses?
Macrophages

** They present antigenic components after phagocyotosis of the antigen carrier.
Normal bacteria flora help prevent disease by which mechanism?
Normal flora

** consumption of nutrients deprive pathogens of these nutrients.
Which nonspecific defense helps prevent eye infections?
Lysozyme in tears.

** Lysozyme breaks down cell walls.
Ciliary escalator is a defense system of which tract?
respiratory
What is benefit of antiserum therapy?
Rapid 100% immunity
What is virulence?
pathogenicity
Majority of food borne infections in US?
C. Pylori
What type of hyper sensativity could occur in a patient with agammaglobulinemia?
type IV cell-mediated reaction

** T-cell mediated reaction
In an AIDs test, which substance is used on the ELISA to coat the microtiter wells?
HIV antigens

** they are absorbed to the wall
What produces antibodies against bacteria, bacterial toxiods, and viruses?
B lymphocytes
What process kills pathogenic microorganisms in a sample?
Pasteurization
Commercial sterilization of plastic?
Ethylene Oxide

**kills microbes and spores
What process is used to sterilize an enzyme solution?
Filtration
What process uses heat and steam to sterilize? 121 degrees C at 15 psi for 15 minutes?
Autoclave
How to sterilize an instrument that is sensative to harsh conditions?
Chemical growth control

** it kills bacteria on objects without heat.
Why is the chemical AZT an effect anti-HIV drug? AZT inhibits ___________?
the synthesis of viral DNA

**AZT blocks reverse transcriptase activity?
Neissera gonorrhea strains are resistant to penicillin. How is it inactivated by the bacteria?
The organism produces enzymes that degrade penicillin when it enters the cell.
Which type of chemical agent is used on inanimate objects primarily to reduce the number of pathogen organisms?
disinfectant
In which phase of microbial growth are prokaryotes the most sensative to antimicrobial agents?
log

**In the log phase, prokaryotes are metabollically active and thus most susceptible to antimicrobial agents.
A chemical agent widely used to disinfect drinking water and is used on spills involving bodily fluids?
halogens

** gas chlorine
Germicidal lamp is what type of radiation?
nonionizing ultraviolet light

** it's radiation damages DNA through direct contact with microbes.
Why is 70% isopropyl alcohol a more effective antimicrobial agent than 100% ethyl alcohol?
Denaturation of protein requires water.
What chemical property do quaternary amine compounds such as benzalkonium chloride possess that enables them to kill microogranisms?
Surfactant ability to dissolve membranes

** Zephiran alters cell permeability, leading to loss of essential cytoplasmic components, especially potassium.
How does interferon inactivate a virus after a cell has been infected?
interferon inhibits the replication of a virus.

** a viral infected cell is stimulated to produce interferon that binds to a neighboring cell, stimulating it to synethsize antiviral particles.
Which process involves reactions that occur in the plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell?
electron transport

** this is the only process that occurs in the plasma membrane
Main characteristics of a virus?
contains one kind of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein shell.
E. coli will have the shortest doubling time in a complex culture medium such as ?
glucose

** a complex medium provides nutrients that allow organisms to synthesize all its organic cellular constituents.
What specific type of mutation results from a single base pair substitution within a bacterial reading frame causing mRNA codon UAC, to be changed to UAG?
nonsense mutation

** it changes a normal codon to a stop codon, UAG stops the synthesis of a protein.
What statement best describes gene therapy?
the insertion of a missing gene into a defect human cell to combat disease
Studies of which subject have been most important in providing relevant information about gene linkage and chromosome mapping?
phage transduction

**transduction of bacteriophage is favored because it is simple and facilitates multiple areas of study
Bacillus megaterium incubated for five days is more resistant to chemical disinfectants than when grown for a single day. Why?
Bacillus megaterium organism forms inert endospores after 5 days.

** inert endospores protect against chemical disinfectants.
What allows bactia to live in hypotonic solution without bursting?
Cell walls
Genomic material of virus particles cannot exist of which form?
a virus cannot have different nucleic acids

** not one strand of RNA and one strand of DNA
What is the end product of the glycolysis pathway?
pyruvic acid
What is found in cell walls of gram positive, gram negative, and acid fast microbes?
peptidoglycan layers

** peptidoglycan is common to all 3 types
Bacteria uses _____ to reproduce?
binary fussion

** most bacteria reproduce by splitting into two equal daughter cells through the process of binary fussion.
What is the process in which bacteria both generate energy and utilize energy?
amphibolism

**amp is the integration of catabolism and anabolism
What molecule contains anticodons?
tRNA

**tRNA has anticodons to recognize mRNA condons
What are some common traits about all fungi?
Eukaryote
multicellular
reproduce asexually or sexually
chemoheterotrophic
What is the role of plasmids in genetic engineering?
R factor plasmids

*** they are used in coloning to ensure that all cut pieces of DNA will have the same sticky ends
What is added to a medium to culture bacteria within the clostridium genus?
Clostridium is an anaerobe and thioglycolate absorbs Oxygen from the medium
How are virus particles commonly quantitated in a bacteriophage suspension?
determines the number of plaques formed

** the concentration of a viral suspension is measured by counting the number of plaques formed in agar.
What energy producing reaction is pyrovate the primary electron acceptor NADH the primary electron donor and the lactate an end product?
fermenatation

** it produces lactate
How does oygen effect obligate anaerobes?
requires no oxygen and oygen may actually harm them
How does oxygen effect aerotolerant anaerobes?
requires no oxygen, but its ok if its present.
How does oygen effect falcutative anaerobes?
requires no oxygen, but if present it may use it
What's the difference between aerotolerant anaerobes and facultative anaerobes?
Facultative may use oxygen if its present and aerotolerant will NOT.
The first synthesis product during replication of a retrovirus?
ssDNA

** retroviruses use reverse transcriptase to synthesize a single strand of DNA for replication to double stranded DNA.
What would likely happen to an organism if it were exposed to a chemical or physical agent that caused a base deletion in the DNA?
A frameshift mutation would occur and the gene would no longer code a functional protein.

** with a frameshift mutation that deletes a codon, the amino acids coded for are altered resulting in production of an inactive protein.
Which characteristic accompanies botulism in adults?
ingestion of a performed toxin.

** intoxication is produced through ingestion.
What chemotherapeutic agent is helpful in alleviating symptoms of genital herpes?
Acyclovir Zovirax

** Herpes is a viral disease and acyclovir treats viral infections.
Microbial disease accompanied by pseudomembrane covering the tonsils, larynx, and nasal region?
Diphtheria

** it produces a pseudomembrane of fibrin, dead tissue, and cells.
Which group of virsus cause warts?
papovavirus
Which information is most useful indistinguishing between food infections and food intoxications?
the time symptoms appear

** symptoms of food intoxication occur within a few hours. symptoms of food infection are delayed until the agent can produce enough cells, or invade tissue to produce symptoms.
Which viral feature is the primary cause of antigenic shift in the influenza A virus?
a segmented RNA genome
Which virus is commonly associated with mononucleosis?
EB Virus

** epstein barr
3 weeks after an episode of pharyngitis antibodies made again the pathogen for the peron's throat infection, cross reacted with the heart tissue and caused cardiac damage...

Which organism was most likely responsible for these events?
Streptococcus pyogenes

** S. Pyogenes can cause an immune reaction against the heart valves.
What is unique of a gram positive?
it takes stain, they typically lack the outter membrane found in gram negative
What is the function of reverse transcriptase in HIV?
to convert the genetic information on viral RNA into DNA
What is malaria?
Eukaryotic protist

** produces fever and headache

*** also a plasmodium
Staphylococcus Aureus
colonization of human skin and upper respiratory tract begins 24 hour after birth

** 20% of all human are long term carriers

** signs: pimples, boils, cellulitis
Trichomoniasis
Protozoan infection
Gonorrhea
bacterial infection
Patient shows signs of irratation of vaginal wall and a thick abnormal discharge.

Analysis of discharge shows an abundance of budding single cell fungi.

Antimycotic vaginal cream is given..

*** WHAT IS THE CAUSATIVE AGENT?
Vaginal Candidiasis

*** Candidiasis is a fungal infection
In what sense is fever a defensive response to disease?
high temperature enhances the effectiveness of interferons.
What kind of pathogens are resident or transient species of pathogenic microbes that cause disease under unusual conditions?
opportunistic

** a generally harmless organism can become pathogenic in a host who is debilitated, traumatized, on antibiotics, or immunocompromised.
What type of hepatits is transmitted by the fecal oral route?
hep A

(ass to mouth)
VD with generalized skin rash?
secondary syphilis
STD involves intracellular parasite of epithelial cells of the urogential tract?
Chlamydia Trachomatis

**this is a parasite that reproduces only with the host cells
What's the difference in pneumonic plague and bubonic plague?
Pneumonic is respiratory

Bubonic is lymphatic
hep B virus
serum hepatitis

retrovirus

replication takes place in the liver
Why was urgency placed on the development of hep b vaccine?
there is a strong correlation between live cancer and chronic hep B infections.
Whats a retro virus?
reverse transcriptase

produces DNA from its RNA

RNA -> DNA -> RNA -> Protein
Bacterial tetanus
preventable with injection of a toxoid
cryptosporidiosis
parasitic disease that is VERY opportunistic

fecal-oral route

diarrhea

infects the small intestine on its exit
patient has cronic cough, low grade fever malaise, sputum reveals slender acid fast rods...
This reveals which disease?
TB

tuberculosis

** acid fast rods
Which action represents a relationship among microbes called mutualism?
the nitrogen fixing symbiotic relationship between a species of bacteria and leguminous plants

** mutualism where two organisms live together for mutual benefit
Scanning electron microscope uses ____?
Electron beams
Fluorescence microscope examines ____?_____
intact organisms
Extremely thin slices and coated with metals for which microscope?
transmission electron
_______% gelatin is thick enough to creat a solid surface for growth
12%
_______ acid bacteria are grown anaerobically to ripen swiss and cheddar cheese
lactic
What term defines the process which bacteria use nitrogen gas to form ammonia?
nitrogen fixation
______ inhabit the intestines and are present in feces
fecal coliforms
Which structures contain the nitrogenase produced by symbiotic relatioship between rhizobium and legumes?
bacteriods

** bacteria change into bacteriods in the root cells causing the root cells to enlarge
Which organisms essential in the sulfur cycle use sulfate as an electron accepor in anaerobic respiration?
sulfate reducing bacteria

** they use sulfates as electron acceptors
what antibacterial compound did Ehrlich use to treat syphilis?
Salvarsan