MATRIC NUMBER NSC/2014/887
COURSE CODE PCL 304
QUESTION NUMBER 1:
LIST THE PRINCIPLES OF CHEMOTHERAPEAUTIC RESISTANCE
PRINCIPLE : Principle is an essential factors or elements that may have impact on the survival mechanism, which may either be from environment or the person taking the drugs or factor participating may engineer drug resistance.
RESISTANCE: It is reduction in drug's effectiveness in which the drug may be fake , adulterated or substandard .Resistance is also the ability of microbes to resist toxic effects of drugs growth.
It is commonly believed that therapy resistance is the result of a selection during therapy …show more content…
•It can be used in case of azole-resistant Candida or use as a second-line agent for refractory aspergillosis.
•Long half-life (polyphasic elimination: alpha phase 1–2 hours + beta phase 9–11 hours + gamma phase 40–50 hours).
•Low toxicity: only histamine release (3%), fever (2.9%), nausea and vomiting (2.9%), and phlebitis at the injection site (2.9%), very rarely allergy and anaphylaxis
•It's not an inhibitor, inducer, or substrate of the cytochrome P450 system, or P-glycoprotein, thus minimal drug interactions
•Lack of interference from renal failure and hemodialysis
•Needs no dose adjustment is necessary based on age, gender, race
•Better (or no less effective) than amphotericin B and fluconazole against yeast infections Disadvantages Disadvantages of …show more content…
THEY ARE AS FOLLOW
1. Attachment of the virus to the cell surface: This can be blocked by Enfuvirtide e.g in HIV
2. Uptake into intracellular vesicles (endosomes). Blocked by Enfuvirtide e.g in HIV
3. Uncoating of virus:- Can be blocked by Amantadine e.g in Influenza A
4. Integration of the viral DNA into chromosomal DNA of the host cell: Can be blocked by Fomivisen e.g in Cytomegaloviruv.
5.Template production and RNA or DNA replication (Nucleic acid synthesis) . This Can be blocked by purine,pyrimidine analogs and reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
6. mRNA transcription , processing and translation of mRNA to protein : blocked by Methisazone e.g in Variola
7. Post-translational modification of proteins:
8. Assembly of the components into the whole virus: it's blocked by Methisazone e.g in Variola
9.Exit from the cells.:can be inhibited by Neuramidase inhibitors e.g in