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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Normal Microbiota
The normal bacteria that resides on the human body:
--help stop harmful bacteria from moving in.
--make necessary vitamins you can't make yourself.
Microorganisms (microbes)
any organism too small to be seen with the naked eye.
Break down dead matter so that it can be recycled.
Use sunlight energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to glucose and oxygen.
Nitrogen Fixation
process by which some microorganisms can take gaseous nitrogen from the atmoshpere and conver it to forms usable by plants and other organisms.
Robert Hooke (1600's)
Named chambers he saw in a thin slice of cork under a microscope - cells.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Built microscopes - lens magnification of about 270 times, better than anyone else at the time. Drew animalcules that laid foundation for future work that connected microbes with disease/set stage for development of treatments.
humors of the body
ancient term - fire, water, eart, air
Spontaneous generation
Idea that living things can be born from nonliving things:
-frogs from mud
-maggots from decaying meat
-mice from soiled underwear with wheat
Francesco Redi (1668)
Italian physician - experiment with spontaneous generation. Began to disprove the theory - meat/maggots.
Louis Pasteur (1861)
Finally settled the debate over spontaneous generation - swan necked flask experiment
Edward Jenner (1798)
Used scrapings from cowpox blisters to vaccinate a boy against smallpox.
Ignaz Semmelweis (1840)
Proposed that handwashing could prevent the spread of infection (childbirth fever)
Louis Pasteur (1864)
Developed pasteurization
Joseph Lister (1867)
Used aseptic techniques during surgery.
Robert Koch (1876)
Work with anthrax supports the germ theory of disease. Established Koch's postulates.
Germ Theory of Disease
The idea that disease is caused by microbes.
Koch's Postulates
The steps necessary to prove a particular organism causes a particular disease.
Ilya Ilich Metchnikoff (1882)
Described phagocytosis
Paul Ehrlich (1891)
Proposed that antibodies are responsible for immunity.
Paul Ehrlich (1912)
Discovered salvarsan, the first chemotherapeutic agent for a bacterial disease (syphilis).
Alexander Fleming (1928)
Discovered penicillin, the first antibiotic.
Study of organisms too small to see with the naked eye.
Cells whose DNA is not enclosed by a membrane.
Cells whose DNA is enclosed by a membrane (includes organisms such as plants, animals, and fungi)
Not cells - can be as simple as DNA surrounded by protein. (made of DNA or RNA surrounded by protein) Eg. Flu virus, polio virus
Prokaryote - Bacteria
Cell wall of peptidoglycan
Eg. escherichia coli, streptococcus
Prokaryote - Archaea
No cell wall or cell wall not of peptidoglycan (often found in extreme environments such as hot springs, salt lakes, and thermal vents) Eg. Thermoplasma, Halobacterium
Eukaryote - Protozoa
Usually single celled, non-photosynthetic, often motile. Eg. Diatoms, ciliates, dinoflagellates (cause red tide)
Eukaryote - Algae
Photosynthetic. Eg. Green Algae
Eukaryote - Fungi
Except for yeast, grow as fine threads of cells (filamentous); not photosynthetic. Eg. bread mold, mushrooms, yeast
Study of Bacteria
Study of Protozoa
Phycology (Algology)
Study of Algae
Study of Fungi
Study of Parasites
Study of the Immune System
Medical Microbiology
Study of microorganisms of medical significance.
Agricultural microbiology
Study of microorganisms of agricultural significance.
Industrial Microbiology
Study of microorganisms involved in production of useful products or cleanup of wastes.
Microbial Ecology
Studies interactions of microorganisms with each other and with their environment.