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49 Cards in this Set

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T/F: If a substance is reduced, it gains electrons
T/F: Teichoic acids are commonly found in gram- negative cell walls
What type of energy-yielding metabolism is found ONLY in prokaryotes? a) chemoorganotrophy, b) phototrophy c) chemolithotrophy d) autotrophy
T/F: DNA-binding proteins typically affect translation of a protein
Which enzyme aids in replication of DNA at the guanine rich 3' end of strand of DNA? a) telomerase b) RNAse c) DNA polymerase d) hydrolase
Promoters are specific sequences of __ that are recognized by __ a. DNA / RNA pol (core enzyme) b. RNA/ DNA pol (core enzyme) c. DNA / sigma factor d. RNA/ RNA pol (core enzyme)
DNA/ RNA pol
The time between inoculation and beginning of growth is usually called the a. lag phase b. log phase c. dormant phase d. death
lag phase
If delta G is negative, the rxn is a. exergonic and requires the input of energy b. endergonic and requires the input of energy c. exergonic and energy will be released d. endergonic and energy will be released
exergonic and energy will be released
T/F: In phototaxis, photosynthetic organisms move away from a light source
T/F: phototrophs use light as an energy source
A pasteur flask has a(n) a. swan neck to prevent particulate matter from getting into the main body of the flask b. double neck so two substances may be added at the same time c. secondary opening at the base to allow for drainage d. inverted upper edge to prevent spillage while swirling
swan neck
T/F: in eukaryotes, DNA is wound around clusters of histones, forming structures known as nucleosomes
the function of kinase is a. methylation b. response regulation c. phosphorylation d. glycosylation
T/F: one problem with batch cultures is the change in the chemical composition of the medium as growth progresses
T/F: some membrane proteins are involved in bioenergetic rxns, while some others are involved in membrane transport
as each molecule of pyruvate traverses the citric acid cyle, how many molecules of CO2 are generated a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4
microbes playing a role in nitrogen fixation in plants live in __, while those playing a role in digestive tract of certain herbivores lie in __ a. rumens/ nodules b. nodules/ rumens c. nodules/ fortrans d. fortrans/ rumes
nodules/ rumes
organisms most likely to be found in extreme environments are a. archaea b. bacteria c. fungi d. viruses
T/F: transcriptional regulation is considered negative when an inducer binds to and deactivates a repressor
T/F: introns and exons are found in eukarya, but they are rare in both bacteria and archaea
T/F: DNA replication is bidirectional in prokaryotes w/ circular chromosomes
An organism capable of growth at full oxygen tensions of 21% is a. aerobic b. microaerophilic c. aerotolerant d. anaerobic
the presence of membrane-enclosed organelles is a characteristic of a. prokaryotic cells b. eukaryotic cells c. all cells d. viruses
eukaryotic cells
developments in the field of immunology and medical microbiology were practical extensions of the work of a. sergei winogradsky b. antoni van leeuwenhoek c. joseph lister d. robert koch
robert koch
when arginine is added to a culture growing exponentially in a medium w/o arginine, what occurs? a. all cellular growth ceases b. growth continues, but the production of enzymes required for the synthesis of arginine ceases c. growth cont, but the prod of enzymes req for the synthesis of arginine increases d. the cell returns to the lag stage of growth to syn the proteins necessary for the metabolism of arginine
growth cont, but prod of enzyme req for syn of arg ceases
the processes of transcription and translation are coupled processes in a. eukaryotic cells b. prokaryotic cells c. both d. neither
prokaryotic cells
AT- rich DNa will denature/ melt a. at highe temp than GC- rich DNA b. at lower temp than GC- rich DNa c. usually at the same temp as GC- rich DNA with some minor variations d. in accordance w/ the animal or plant from which it was taken
lower temp than GC- rich DNA
Which environmental factor (s) influence microbial growth? a. pH b. water availability c. oxygen d. all of the above
all of the above
As shown in the diagram, the F1 component of an ATP synthase was fixed on a coverslip surfce and an actin filament was attached to the gamma subunit. Using this experimental set up, scientists demonstrated that: a. proton motive force drives ATP synthesis b. F1 component of ATP synthase rotates as it functions as an ATPase c. F1 component of ATP synthase is a molecular motor that moves along the actin filament d. actin filament, instead of proton motive force can be used to drive ATP synthesis
F1 component of ATP synthase rotates as it fxns as an ATPase
carrier mediated transport is necessary when a. diffusion will not allow adequate amts of substance to enter the cell b. movement into the cell is against a concentration gradient c. the level of nutrients in nature is very low d. all of the above
all of the above
T/F: lynn margulis played a major role in developing endosymbiosis theory, which was critical for understanding the evolution of eukaryotic cells
the largest mass of living material on earth comes from a. microorganisms b. plants c. animals d. plants and animals together
in what/which domain(s) of life is/are microoganisms represented a. archaea b. bacteria c. eukarya d. all of the above
all of the above
which of the following is/are characteristic of cellualr organisms? a. metabolism b. regeneration and reproduction c. communication d. all of the avove
all of the above
the polysaccharide pseudomurein is present in the walls of a. bacteria b. eukarya c. some archaea d. bacteria and archaea
some archaea
aseptic technique refers to a. microbial inoculum placed into a test tube or onto a petri plate b. prevention of contamination c. autoclave and other sterilizing procedures d. cleanliness in lab
prevention of contamination
from the standpoint of microorganism, in glycolysis the crucial product is a. ATP; the fermentaion products are waste products b. ehtanol or lactate; ATP is a waste product c. CO2; ATP is a waste product d. not relevant bc glycolysis is not a major pathway
ATP; fermentation products are waste products
An agar plate for counting colonies and maximizing statistical validity should ideally contain a. 10-100 b. 20-200 c. 30-300 d. 10-1000
alternative sigma factors in the cell regulate a. negative ionic response b. heat shock response c. electrical gradient response d. RNA pol response
RNA pol response
protein-encoding genes are often split into two or more coing regions called _ and noncoding regions known as _ a. exons/introns b. introns / exons c. exon/inteins d. introns/exteins
the precursor of each new nucleotide in a strand of DNA is a a. deoxynucleoside 5' - diphosphate b. deoxynucleoside 3' diphosphate c. deoxynucleoside 5' - triphosphate d. doexynucleoside 3' triphosphate
deoxynucleoside 5' triphosphate
which of the following forms of O2 is generally toxic to lving organisms? a. superoxide anion b. hydrogen peroxide c. hydroxyl radical d. all of the above
siderophores a. bind iron and transport it into the cell b. are key compenent in the cytochromes c. help maintain osmotic balance in seawater microbes d. develop when errors in membrane synthesis occur
bind iron and transport it into the cell
the periplasm is a(n) a. part of the outer cell membrane of gram-negative organisms b. part of the inner membrane of gram-negative organisms c. region btwn the cytoplasmic membrane and the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria d. alternate name for the inner cell membrane of any prokaryotic cell
region between
mRNa transcript may be polycistronic in a. eukaryotic cells b. prokaryotic cells c. both d. neither
prokaryotic cells
T/F:proteins that bind to DNa can either block or activate transcription
the ultimate limit of what we are able to see with a microscope is dictated by b. resolution c. light intensity d. visual acuity
which of the following is NOT correct regarding DNA and RNa synthesis? a. the overall direction of chain growth is from 5' to 3' end b. both processes require an RNA primer to begin c. the template strand is antiparallel to the neqly synthesized strand d. DNA is the template for both DNA and RNa synthesis
both processes require an RNA primer to begin
T/F: most prokaryotic genomes are double stranded circular DNA