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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the effect of pragmatic implications on memory recognition

Can it be overcome?
are a powerful source of forming false aspects of memories.

Not really, although correct responses increased with warning, still not alot
What are some eyewitness identification issues>
Level of confidence

Cross race identification

Retroactive interference-->describing it to someone influences what you remember

Revealing instructions/feedback
Kids and older adults
What is boundary extension? How does it work?

How do verbal labels affect visual pictures?
extending the boundaries beyond whats actually shown in the original stimulus. Tendency to zoom out.

can create improper recognition
How can false memories be induced using semantic associations?
List of similar words in meaning, in recall and recog, more likly to get wrong
Summarize the strategies that lead to effective encoding of new information

Summarize the various biases that occur when recalling new info
Analyze the meanign of events and avtively process the info (relate to what you already know)

Form mental images

Testing enhances later memory (not restudying)

Pragmaic implications, boundary extention, semantic imlications, verbal labels to images
Summarize the factors that lead to false memories
inferential processing
repeated retreival attempts
soical pressure to remember
misleading suggestions
Explain the Muller-lyer illusion
how is this related to memory?
lines are like angles and surrounding lines influence how we interpret what we see. Lines wit inward angles are perceived as longer. <----> vs. >----<.
Knowing about it doesnt help.

memory is influenced by biases and distortions just as illusions give insight to understanding normal perceptions.
How would you respond to the quote that "memories fade"? Gx
Memories dont fade, only the initonal perception or the actual experience of the actual events. Every time we recall we reconstruct, depending on succeeding events, other peoples recollections or suggestions, increased understanding or a new context.
How can memory distortions be
B--> something only htought about but you think it actually happened

S--> confusing what u heard wih what u saw after a crime

F-->remembering having piloted a spaceship
Differentialte btw internal and external source judgements
I-->thought abt vs actually happened
E-->trying to keep track of who told u the info, person A or B?
Differentiate between how the recall pattern of external events/experiences with thoughts or imagined events

What is the overall take home message?
External events contain info denoting time, location, spatial arrangement, emotion or sensory perceptual details

Internal thoughts/imagined events r less vivid but offer more cognitive operations-->intention, planning and imagery.

that memories differ depending on teh source
How does similarity factor into recalling imagery and perceptions
Imagining having said something in yr own voice often becomes confused with having said it. A false, but vivid imagination could lead to a false memory recollection
Gx4 cryptomnesia
Indaverdant plagerism, confusing what uve read with what uve thought of yourself.

Good hair movie
Explain the role of misleading questions in the answer provided. Gx
subtle features of how we ask questions can flavor the answer
Did you see a nap ball vs.
Did you see the nap ball
Gx of a study used by misleading information experts.
Had subjects watch a film of a 2 car accident, reponses differered depending on the word used in the question, did you see any broken glass.
How fast were they going when they hit vs contact vs bumped vs collided vs smashed
What was found to be effective at reducing the misinformation effect
orienting the participants towards the source of memory. In stop vs yeild sign sutdy, asked did u see it in pic only, pic and text or text only. this eliminated teh misinformation effect
Explain verbal overshadowing. Relate to real life
Having to describe visual informaion verbally worsens performance on a visual memory test becasue verbal label overshadows/inhibits actual visual image.
Does emotion enhance or interfere with memory?

What is a flashbulb memory? When are these more likly?

What are the criticisms of these memory types?
It enhances the memory

a particularly compelling recollection of a certian event. For highly emotional , surprising, unanticipated and distinctive events with strong personal significance.

Theres little relation btw confidence and accuracy. Many higly confidenct people were wrong.
The term is misleading, its not actually a capsture of the event becasue memories not necesarily accurate.
What leads to inaccuracy?
confusions of time slices
confusions with other peoples stories
confabulations (reality monitoring error think vs actulaly did)
Reliance on schemas to fill in gaps
Exaggerated stories become truth.
What is the relationship btw emotion and encoding

What part of brain is most responsible for emotion
Encoding requires attention, emotion affects attention, emotion affects te interpretation of events.

the amygdala
Why are emotional events remembered better?

Does emotion serve as a retreival cue? Gx
they r rehearsed more

Yes, if in similar emo state later have better time remembering the event
Depressed people readily remmebrer sad or bad things
What is the cost of hiding emotion>
trying to hide emotion harms memory, dividing attention
What is the effect of attempting to hide emotion on memory? How was this exibited?
It harms memory because u have to divide attention btw emtion and what actually going on.

In film clip study watched emo inducing clip and half asked to not let their feelings show adn others to just watch and listen carefully.
How is memory different in emotional situations? Give evidence
central peripheral details are remembered differently depending on level of emotionality.
15 slides, 8th depicted woman biclying (neutral), woman lying next to bike injured (emoitonal) or woman carrying a bike (unusual) with a car in background in all conditions.

Emo conditions led to best memory for central detail (woman), with peripheral details (car) being the best remmebered in the neutral condition. People payed attention to the emotional cue adn less to toher things
Explain the Gx4 the Easterbrook hypothesis (weapon focus)
Our attentional focus is narrowed with emotion. We are more likly to focus on weapons.
What part of the brain is most affected by emotion? What happens if something is wrong with this part of the brain? How does this hellp determine future memory?
Gender differences
Amygdala is very active, if lesioned, no emotions and difficult time processing fear in comparison with other emotions (overall intact face recognition). Activity in amygadala predicts probablity of remmebering the info later.
Women-->left amygadala
Men-->right amygdala
Why are emotional events so well remembered? What is the effect of mood on memory?
Because we are more likly to rehearse emotional events.
When in happy mood, u recall more pleasant memories and pay attention to more pleasant stimuli. Vice versa with sad moods.
Explain the habituation/dishabituation method of studiing infant memory. Does this work with young infants? When? What nonverbal behaviors are studied to determine interest?
highlights babies inner curiosity of novel aspects of the enviornment.
H-->adaptive response, when infant ceases to respond to familiar stimiuls
D-->introducing a slightly different stimulus, if respond, proves baby can distinguish betweene the 2 stimuli. extent to which they prefer teh new stimulus indicates whether or not its remembered.
Study time and making objects visually different can demonstrate visual recognition memory n newborns.
Looking time
listening time
sucking rate
What is the paired comparison technique? Does this work with young infants? If so, when?
Measure change in retention interval between first identical pair and when one obj in pair is changed. Looking time. Study time and making objects visually different can demonstrate visual recognition memory n newborns.
How is conditioning used to study infant memory? (mobile studies)
What are the findings in terms of infants ablity to hold memory. How do tasks differ with age?
Typically look at infants ability to learn and remmember what they learned later. Attach infants leg to string that can move mobile when kicked properly. Measure baseline kicking rate, kicking rate after training and retention (kicking rate afer delay. Typically alot of initial kicking, then dies down when there is no reward.
2 mont olds-->remmeber for week
18 month--> 13 weeks
Might change to pushing lever to move a train instead of kicking in crib with older babies.
How does context dependency change with age?
Younger babies r much more context dependence, dependcy decreasees with age.
How is deferred imitation used in studying infant memory?
study repetition of previous acts done by caretakers.
What brain systemsdevelop during childhood? How do they improve memory?
At what age does rehearsal emerge? How does this change with age?
Frontal lobes
Strategy use
Task-relevant knowlege
metamemory (knowledge abt memory)

At around 6 or 7 years. Older kids more likely to organize and cluster info. Rehearsing increases with age along with the adapton of better rehearsal strategies.
How does metamemory development change across childhood?

When is infantile amnesia offset?
at 5, know some things but still inconplete metamemory. Know its weasier to learn a short list in comparison with longer.

8 year olds know when more time is needed to master a set or pics, 5 year olds declare tehy know right away.

Around 3 years or so
What other things happen during childhood to imporve memory>
buildup of semantic networks
learning schemas
Can lead to distortions.
Increased articulation rate-->leads to increased words remmebered (digeit span adn word lenth effect)
What types of things do adults remmember about their early childhood? At what specific ages of childhood do these memoreis occur?
Taking unusual trips, getting in trouble, new siblings, being in control of usuals caregiver (daycare, new babysitter, staying with relative).
What are the implications of cognitive slowing in older adults? How does this complicate results?
It means it takes them longer to complete tasks, doesnt necessarily mean they dont know. Ex, takes 60 year olds longer to complete lexical decision task than 30 year olds. Possible solution-->give them more time but this still complicates results.
What are some issues with cross sectional designs using older adults and in general?
Changes in health
Education (older adults often have more formal education than younger
Cohort effects (cultural experience produces a difference)
What are some issue with longitudinal designs using older adults?
Drop out
Expensive in time and money
Practice effects (not a big concern with memory effects)
What happens to short-term memory with increasing age? Give evidence
It decreases over time with highest stm at ages 20-25 and lowest from 65-86. Research testing adults at different ages on the Brown-Peterson task (triagram, counting backwards, test memory)
What happens to Episodic memory with age? Does type of test matter?
Performance decreases with age but there is still much individual variation so hard to predict memory for a certain age.
Type of test also matters, not that much of an age difference with recognition tests but stark age difference in recall with oldies doing worse.
What happens to the remembering component of memory with age? Knowing component?
Declines with age, knowing doesnt really change.
Give an Ex of how an older adults source memory would be.
Would have impaired memory for context, trouble remembering which voice said the sentence (problems stating the source of a memory)
Give evidence for the finding that older adults can enhance their memory performance by using metacognition.
When given 1.5 secs logner to complete a memory task, the total errors decreased starkly. Descreased even more when older adults were able to conduct a task at their own pace (almost matched younger adults error rate).

Unlike kids, old adults are able to manipulate the extra time to do better
What is the role of the emotional component of memory/expectations with older adults in comparison with younger adults?
Instructions didnt matter with young adults but intructions (Supportive vs. challenging-->i need your help vs this is a test of your intelligence) mattered alot with older adutls-->do better in supportive atmospheres in comparison to nuetral and challenging ones, worst in challenging.

Study that manipulated emotions using subliminally presented words either negative to old age, positive or nuetral. Negative words have high influencee on memory (it was worse).
What happens to Semantic memory with age? Particularly priming? What is a common complaint amoung older adults abt this memory?
It is preserved in older adults, acutally did better in semantic priming experiment with both identity and related priming info.

The tip of the tongue phonomenon, increases with age.
How does prospective memory change with age?

How would an older adult perform on an impllicit memory test?
Declines, especially time-based witho exteranl aids. Also bad for event based.

Just as good, this typeof memory is intact in oldler adults.
What explains the effects of aging on memory?
Reduced speed of processing
Reduced processing resources (limited)
Automatic vs. Controlled processing (intact automatic but higher demanding controlled processing tend to fail)
Contextual/Evnvironmental support
Inhibition (older ahve hard timeinhibition distractions in environment)
Do memory effects on aging show neurologically? If so, how?
Yes, frontal lobes r tied to atentional capacity, working memory and inhibitory control. This section of brian functions less in older adults. But still much variation, some still have high bilateral frontal lobe functioning.
What does the frontal hypothesis of aging imply?
How is high funcitioning lobe in older adult different form that of a youjnger?
Effects of aging on memory are due to declining funcitoning of frontal areas wiht leads to problems in attentioanl control and source monitoring

Increases in illusory recollection hsould be most prevalent in older adults with the largest frontal lobe damage.

oLDER--> more bilateral, m reorgainzed neuroconitive networks to compensate
low, same lobe activation but used inefficiently
What is the overall pattern in teh memory of older adults?
Memory tasks taht place little demands on attention produce very little decline (implicit mem, semantic priming
Define adn Gx for autobiographical memo
memories a person has of his or her life experiences and self, can be semantic and episodic.
How do diary studies work? What do they test? Gx of a simple diary study experiment, What r some general conclusions from these studies? What are some problems with diary studies? Do false alarms occur?
Have a person record a number of events over a certain time period, then test their memory, attempting to find any pattern of remmebered info. Tests autobioraphical memory.
Remembered events are salent, emotional and distinctive

Unique events are recalled well
Emotonal eveents
Temporal cues arent too effective
Some evidence for better memory for positive events.

Tend to have a single subject (generality issues)
Difficult to do
Act of recording may change the memory for event
Knowledge of impending memory test.

Yes, in one there was incorrect acceptances of others diary entries as one's own.
Explain and Gx4 the Galton Word cuing technique. Any major findings discovered using this technique?

Explain the reminisnecnse bump
Retreive a personal memory in response to cue words. Aims to obtain a random sample of all memories via the use of cue words
the distribution of memoires as a fucntion of age. Type of cue can be manipulated using certain words, ex: Happy

Tend to remmeber mor of the last 5 years with fewer childhood memories than predicted by Ebbinghaus (no primary effects, only recency).

older adults show an increase in memory for the ages of 16-25, cross-culturally.
Explain the event cuing technique
Participants recall personal memories in response to specific event cues. -->First kiss, first week of college, 9/11
What are some commonly recalled events among students?

How is forgetting of autobiographical memory defferent fro word lists?
Injuries and accidents, Sports, Romantic episodes, "firsts".

Not many primacy effects, ony recency
What factors contribute to forgetting (autobiographical memory)
Post event information is often associated or confused with wiaht acctually happened. (watching report on news vs. what u actually saw.)

Rehearsal affects
Differentiate btw field perspective and observer perspective. How is perspective affected by age?
Fp is things seen in own eyes, originally experienced.
Op is seen from others eyes, as an observer might see it, oftnen visualize oneself in the memory.

Older memories r more often OP.
How do individuals "rewrite history"
What drives the way we remmeber events?
Wishful thinking
Selective retreival
Implicit theroes

how we are motivated to see ourselfs, our need for a choehsive life narrative
our ideas about what should have happened.
Describe the testing effect. Explain a simple experiemnt that explores this.
Manipulate the number of study pahses and test phases. The testing of memory not only assesses what we know, but changes it. Testing enhances later perfomance more than additonal study.

Increased testing opputunites foster better retention.

Ex study: Have participants remmerbr a list of 40 words, broken up in 10ths, some study then test, othrers just study and take a break, manipulate number of sudy and test sessions to see if extra studying or extra testing enhances retrieval, Findaings overwhelming, Testing is BETTER. Although repeated reading does short term boost

Repeated retreival is the key to long term retention, studing doesnt really matter.
Do people think most about the past, present or future?
most about presnt, next most future, east is teh past
Define and Gx for autonoetic consciousness (Self reflective consciousness)

Gx4 episodic future thought

What would selective impairment look like in autonoetic consicousness? Gx
reflecting upon the self, mental time travel.

envisioning in the future and distinguishing this between what already happened (personally)

Patient KC, stuck in prmanent presecne, unable to understand concept of past and future. nO episodic memory
How are small children's autonoetic consciousness? at waht ge?

In what order do past and future memory develop?
Have difficulty thinking in past and future fomr 1-3 years, better by age 4-5,

Normally at about the same time, work together.
What does it mean taht people with medial temporal lobe amnesia have spatial coherence deficents? Gx
Have difficulty seeing in spatially coherent images, no imaged or remmebered known contextual settings.
Explain the results of neuroimaging studies that look at nueral sinatures for remembering vs. envisioning the future.
What does this strong connection imply about memory in general?
There were no neural signatures for remembering vs envisioning the future, but some regions showed more activity for envisioning the future than in remmebring but overall both functions activiated the same areas of the brain.

remembering enables us to envison the future so when we cant remebr its hard to see the future.
What is a possible explanation fo the finding that memory for the future (episodic futre thought) is less vivid htan remmebering?

Other difference or similarities>
Future events r more likly to b placed in unfamiliar locations. Therapist setting vs. Freshman year college

Both mem and eft more observer perspective than field
Similar qualatative characteristics, visual perspective (above eye level
developmental trajectories
breakdowns in depression, schizo and amnesia
patterns of activiy in neroimaging
similar qualitative characterisics.
What are mnemonic devices? What general principle do they share?
Wyas to help us decode information better.

relate 2b remmebered info with what u already know
imagery helps memory
Retrieval cues aidd memory
Do memory improvement tapes work?
with subliminal study, actual memory imporvement was not related to the tapes content, placebo effects
Gx4 Macromnemonics
GENERAL procedures taht can learning more efficent and effective. Use meaningful encoding adn retrieval structure

SQ3R technique-->survey, question, read-->recite-->review
Gx4 Micromneocis. Differentiate btw single adn multiple use

what is the link method
mehtod of loci
ped method?
Do they work?

What is a mnemonist
You have remmeber mnemonic device itself for it to work and apply it successfully.


mULTIPLE: Link method

LM: chain together series of words, pictorially or verbally, only if u dont forget in 1 word


Instead of memorizing places u memorize rhymes than attach new info to it, works very well.

A memory expert, not necessairly beteer memory, just better techniques and amnt they can remember, ex. see numbers in colors.