Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/12

Click to flip

12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Discovery 1:


Louis Pasteur- 'Germ Theory'

•Discovered- Bacteria cause disease


• Hinderance- Cannot identify which individual bacteria cause which disease


•Published 'Germ Theory' in 1861


• Carried out experiments to prove that bacteria make milk and beer go bad


• 1864- convinced scientists that germs cause disease and that spontaneous generation was wrong. Proved bacteria cause decay.

Discovery 2:


Robert Koch

• 1870s- Developed a method to help identify specific bacteria.


• Made first discovery of the bacterium that causes TB.


• Other scientist follow Koch's methods and discover bacteria causing other diseases.

Discovery 3:


Louis Paster- More vaccines

• 1880s- Pasteur discovers how vaccination works and develops new vaccines against animal diseases, and then human diseases such as Rabies.


• Other scientists develop vaccines against other diseases

Discovery 4:


Koch- work from 1881-1882

• Koch thought Pasteur had stolen some of his research in anthrax. Wanted to become the first person to discover the specific germ that causes a human disease.


Investigated TB. Found a way of staining bacterium to causing the disease that made it stand out from other bacteria and human tissue- it was so small other scientists missed it.

Discovery 4: continued


Bacteria found between 1882 & 1894

• 1882- Typhoid


• 1883- Cholera


• 1884- Tetanus


• 1886- Pneumonia


• 1887- Meningitis


• 1894- Plague


• 1898- Dysentry

Discovery 5:


Paul Erhlich

• 1909- Ehrlich develops cure for syphillis. It was the first chemical cure for disease called "Salvarsan 606" or a "magic bullet" because it homes in on the harmful bacteria.

Discovery 5: continued


Gerhard Domagk

• 1930s- Domagk develops "Prontosil" the second magic bullet to cure blood poisoning.


• Scientist discover that the important chemical in these cures is sulphonamide. Drug companies develop more sulphonamide cures for diseases e.g. Pneumonia.

Discovery 6:


Fleming, Florey, & Chain

• Magic bullets couldn't kill staphylococcus germs


• 1928- Alexander Fleming accidentally discovers penicillin. Left a pitri dish on his desk near an open window. Mould grew on t, and killed the bacteria originally there.


• 1938- Florey an Chain were researching how germs can be killed.


•Tried to get funding from the government- they got £25


• asked for money from America and got enough for five years research.


• 1941- Florey & Chain needed help mass producing penicillin but the English were busy with the war effort.


• 1941- Pearl Harbour happens. American realise potential do penicillin and make interest free loans to buy the equipment needed to make penicillin.


• British forms start developing it too just in time to treat the wounded allies in D-Day in 1944- over 2.3 million doses.

Discovery 7:


Crick & Watson

• 1953- Crick and Watson discovered the structure of human DNA and how it is passed on from parents to children


•1990s- The Human Genome Project began working working out exactly how each part of human DNA work affects the human body.

Developments in surgery: 1


X-Ray

• Developed by German scientist Wilhelm Röntgen


• carried out experiments in 1895


• Within months x-Ray machines were being used in hospitals


• Marie Curie convinced the French government to pay for mobile x-rays

Development 2:


Marie Curie & Radiation Therapy

• Radiotherapy developed from Röntgen's discovery of X-Rays


• Marie Curie and her husband discovered that the skin on their hand was being burned by re material thy wee handling. They investigated his which led to the discovery of radium which has been used to diagnose and treat cancers ever since


• Marie Curie is the only woman to ever have won two Nobel prizes for her work on x-rays and on radium

Development 3:


Blood Transfusions Karl Landsteiner

• Blood transfusions were often attempted in the 1800s. Most didn't work.


• 1901- Discovers the existence of blood groups


• Blood transfusions could now occur- provided the donor and the patient were in the same place


• blood could not be stored because it would clot and could not be used for transfusions.


• This issue of solving blood was solved in WWI when there was a huge need for blood to use.


• first breakthrough-Sodium citrate added to blood to prevent clotting


• Second breakthrough- scientists discover a way to seperate and store crucial blood cells and keep them in bottles for future use.