• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

VIP score numbering

0-5. Resite on stage 2.
size of blue needle
size of pink needle
size of green needle
Size of gray needle
size of orange needle
size of yellow needle
24 (too small for anything!)
regular osmolarity of blood
275-295 mOsm/L
daily replacement needed of Na
100 mEq
Daily replacement needed of K
40-80 mEq
fluid loss during surgery by evaporation per hour
500-1000 mL/ hr
What is in 1 L of LR
130 Na, 109 Cl, 4 KCl, 3 Ca, 28 HCO3. 273 total.
osmotic pressure from 1 g dextrose
5 mOsm
Fever within 24 hours of admit
atelectasis, wound cellulitis, drug fever (NOT likely CAUTI)
Fever on day 2
pneumonia or CAUTI
Fever on day 3 or 4
Thrombophlebitis, DVT, wound infection, tissue/organ inflammation
Fever after day 5-7
"not good!" deep infection, DVT, Cdiff, neoplasm, leaking anastmosis
when would wound dehiscence occur
5-12 days after surgery
Lymphocytes are up with
viral infection (often mono) or leukemia
How to diagnose COPD
Test FEV1 <70% AFTER giving short acting bronchodilator
3 most common symptoms of COPD
dyspnea, cough, sputum
CAT assessment criteria (7)
Cough, sputum, tightness, stairs/breathless, limits on home activities, confident leaving home, sleep soundly, energy
MMRC dyspnea scale
1 - slight hill, 2- slower than everyone else on flat ground, 3 - stop after 100 yards, 4- too breathless to leave house
Gold scale
1 (mild) FEV more than 80%, 2 (moderate) 50
how to combine assessment of COPD (GOLD standard)
mMRC or CAT (low or high) and then number of exacerbations/year (0-1 vs 2 or more)
COPD combined assessment categories (4)
A: less symptoms, less risk. B: more symptoms, less risk. C: Less symptoms, high risk. D: More symptoms, high risk.
COPD comorbidiities (6)
CVD, Osteoporosis, RI, Anxiety/depresion, DM, Lung cancer
5 med categories for COPD
Beta 2 agonists, Anticholinergics, Methylxanthines, Corticosteroids, Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors.
Inhaled Corticosteroids indicated when
when FEV1 is less than 60%
Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors indicated when
GOLD 3 or 4 (less than 50% FEV1), AND Hx of exacerbations and chronic bronchitis.
phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor (for severe COPD)
When is flu vaccine indicated r/t COPD
when FEV1 is less than 40%, or pt. is over 65
Can O2 therapy increase survival rates? With whom?
pts with severe resting hypoxemia
when is lung volume reduction surgery indicated
pts with upper-lobe emphysema and low exercise capacity
use of corticosteroids with COPD
recommended short term and/or in combination with others long term. Not LT monotherapy!
what is an exacerbation of COPD
worse symptoms beyond normal day-to-day variations AND leads to Cx. In medication
most common cause of COPD exacerbation
URI or infective trachea/bronchitis
normal Rx for exacerbation
Short acting bronchodilators with or without anthicholinergics, corticosteroids and antibiotics, noninvasive ventilation
ideal pulse ox reading for COPD patient
88-92% to keep from getting O2 dependent
3 cardinal symptoms indicating use of antibiotics in COPD
increased dyspnea, increased sputum, and increased sputum purulence. AND/or mechanical ventilation.
why does smoking increase pneumonia risk?
disrupts ciliary and macrophage activity
Why does NPO increase pneumonia risk?
colonization of bacteria in pharynx
why does ETOH increase pneumonia risk?
decreases ciliary mvmt and immunosuppression
classical symptoms of pneumonia
PaO2 <80%, shaking chills, stabbing chest pain, fever, and increased HR 10 BPM for every degree Celsius, increased WBC (with bacterial) or lymphocyte (Viral)
normal WBC count
why would monocytes be high?
chronic infection/ end of infection (become macrophages)
why would eosinophil count be high?
inflammatory or allegic reaction
Never let momma eat beans
order of multiplicity in blood. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
what does WBC "shift to the left" mean?
high neutrophil and band (immature neutrophils) count. Indicates acute bacterial infection.
HAP timing
48 hours or more after admission
VAP timing
24 hours to 4 days after intubation
HCAP timing
within 2 days of admission in a pt who is in a LTCF, was hospitalized within past 30 days, or received blood dialysis
CAP timing
pneumonia present upon admission
function tissue of an organ (ex. Lung or liver), as opposed to support structure (such as pleura)
does asthma increase mucus production
Why yes, it does!
AG->AB response
antigen to antibody
viral illnesses often lead to…
sinusitis (treat with amoxicillin)
can cold precipate asthma?
yes, it can! And also sinus infection.
3 Rx for acute asthma
O2, SABA, high dose systemic corticosteroid
Asthma treatment steps (6)
1) SABA, 2) ICS or LTRA or AntiCh or Methylxanthine. 3) medium ICS or low ICS and LABA. 4) Medium IC and LABA. 5) High ICS and LABA. 6) High ICS, LABA and PO CS.
inhaled corticosteroid
leukotrine receptor antagonist (for bronchodilation)
osmotic pressure from 1 g dextrose
5 mOsm
Isoetharine (bronkosol)
Albuterol med type
Epinepherine med type r/t asthma
anticholinergic (block parasympathetic NS)
xanthine group (methylxanthine). Decrease bronchospasm, longer than SABAs.
xanthine group (methylxanthine). Decrease bronchospasm, longer than SABAs.
Xanthine levels
5-15 mcg/mL
cromolyn sodium (nasalcrom)
prophylaxis decreae airway inflammation and edema. Start 2-3 wk beore allergy season
Nedocromil (Tilade)
inhibits release of inflammatory mediators
prevent mast cells from opening for allergen
Zafirlukast (accolate)
prevent leukotreine synthesis
montelukast (singulair)
prevent leukotreine synthesis
zileuton (zyflow) type and concern
prevent leukotreine synthesis. Inhibits P450.
Mg as a med
vaso and bronchodilator
how to do peak flow measurement
fill lungs completely, bite and close lips, blow out hard and fast as possible, record. Repeat 3 times. Take "personal best"
when should PRN SABA move to scheduled dose
when used more than 3X week
when should more powerful dose of bronchodilator be used
when you need more than 6 puffs/day
how much K lost per L of urine
20 mEq
Ampicillin-sulbactam treatment for what type of Pneumonia
early onset simple pneumonia
Ceftriaxone for pneumonia
early onset simple pneumonia
levofloxacin or moxifloxacin for pneumonia
early onset simple pneumonia
ciprofloxacin for pneumonia
early onset simple pneumonia
ertapenem for pneumonia
early onset simple pneumonia
cefepime for pneumonia
late onset or multidrug resistant pneumonia
ceftazidime for pneumonia
late onset or multidrug resistant pneumonia
imipenem or meropenem for pneumonia
late onset or multidrug resistant pneumonia
piperacillin-tazobactam and cipro or levofloxacin for pneumonia
late onset or multidrug resistant pneumonia
amikacin, gentamycin, or trobramycin AND linezolid or vancomycin for pneumonia
late onset or multidrug resistant pneumonia
minimum treatment time for CAP
5 days
minimum treatment time for HCAP HAP or VAP
7 to 10 days
pulse oximeter reading
partial pressure of oxygen in blood Usually over 80
pulse oximeter reading
hypoxemia definition
PaO2 of less than 60 mmHg or POX of less than 90%
what flow rate of O2 to start humidifying
when more than 6 L/min
what are the conditions for oxygen toxicity?
more than 60% O2 for more than 48 hours
five drugs for TB
isonazid, rifampin, pyrazinmide, streptomycin, ethambutal
virchows triangle for PE
stasis, vessel wall injury, hypercoagulability
PERC for PE criteria (8)

over 50, HR over 100, POX under 95, Hx of DVT, recent trauma, hemoptysis, Estrogen, Unilateral leg swelling