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13 Cards in this Set

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Fermentation vs. Respiration

Differ in the mech of ATP Synthesis

Fermentation: ATP produced by substrate level phosphorylation (Phosphate goes form substrate-> ADP)

Respiration: ATP produced by oxidative phosphorylation (Phosphate added to ADP)

What is glycolysis?

the oxidation of glucose to pyruvate

can be reduced to create fermentation products or can be fed into the TCA cycle

Big picture of Glycolysis

Stage 1 & 2 & 3

Stage 1: uses 2 ATP/ glucose has no redox rxns

Stage 2: makes 4 ATP/ glucose & converts 2 NAD+ --> 2 NADH

----if respiration possible, pyruvate

enters TCA cycle---

Stage 3: NAD+ regenerated // fermentation products made

Why is glycolysis energy production low?

low because glucose is partially oxidized


NAD+ is regenerated during forming of fermentation products instead of having NADH donate e-

What is the Pasteur effect?

inhibiting effect of oxygen on the fermentation process (ie inhibiting alcohol production) leads to reduction in rate of glucose consumption

What's so cool about respiration?

- It is fully oxidized to CO2 using the TCA cycle

for every glucose molecule, 8 NADH, 2 FADH and 2 ATP are made

- Theoretical max of ATP = 38 ATP per glucose molecule

- Proton gradient generated to drive ATP production

What is an ETC?

Electron Transport Chain

series of e- donor/ e- acceptor molecules that end in a terminal e- acceptor

How do ETCs help make ATP?

1. e- transfers in the chain make enough E to pump e- across CM to outside of cell

2. CM gets charged

3. When e- come back into cytoplasm, they go down gradient and release energy to do work as they're falling, powering ATP synthesis.

What is a proton gradient?

a source of energy gained from the e- falling down the ETC concen. gradient

What are the e- carriers in respiration?

NAD+/ NADH carry H atoms--> Can donate cells to an ETC

FMN = intermediate e- carrier // Carries H atoms

What do cytochrome proteins do?

Contain covalently bound heme cofactors

Heme= e- ONLY carrier

What do iron sulfur clusters do?

covalently bound to ETC via Cys residues

e- only carriers

What do Quinone molecules do?

- Mobile hydrophobic e- carriers that diffuse in the CM

- Interact with different donor and acceptor complexes

* In reduced state, carries 2e- and 2 H+ important for generating a PMF