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75 Cards in this Set

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What is metal?

A pure chemical element

What is a alloy?

A combination of materials in the predominant one which is a metal
What are metals?

a material having plasticity, hardness, strength, electrical, thermal conductivity and crystalline when solid and opaque.
What is failure fracture?
when a component has separated into 2 peices

Progressive fracture?

failure occurs at the weakest link and transferred to the next link.

What are the characteristics of dynamic loading?

temperature, "brittle" characteristics, pressure, corrosive environments, vibration/age hardening/improper maintenance.
What is creep?

A time dependant strain of solids cause by stress




What is a discontinuity?

a change in laminar flow or physical structure of the part which may or may not render the part unservicable

What is OEM stand for?
Original Equipment Manufacturer

What is a defect?
a interruption in the normal flow of the part which deems the part unservicable

What is joining?


the process of combining small localized liquid areas that are allowed to solidify results in one solid part (to grow crystal)




What are chemical properties?
the materials chemical property identifications that materials atomic reaction when in contact with another material.
What is the corrosion?

gradual destructive of metal/alloy due to the chemical processes such as oxidation
What is density?

mass per unit of volume
What is matter?

substance in which a physical object is composed. Anything made of atoms.
What is cohesive strength?

the relationship of atomic attraction to one another
Describe hydrogen flakes appearance?

extremely thin and bright silver in appearance
Investment casting
process is a perisision coating process and is also known as the "lost wax process"
What is pattern?

form a cavity or proper shape and size in the sand
What are chaplets?

are used to overcome shifting movements of the core during pouring of the molten liquid
What is a flask?

a solid structure that contains the sand

What are the 3 types of gates in casting?

knife gate, horseshoe gate, multiple in-gate with tapered runners
What are chills?
aid in directional solidification by offering a starting point for nucleation " heat absorbing devices"
What is a blow hole?

a pocket of air or gas formed in a metal during solidification
Risers are intended to?


- replace liquid metal when contraction occurs during the solidification.


-promote good directional solidification



Misrun
incompletely formed casting due to premature solidification or metal before mold is filled
What are the two types of casting cores?

permanent and lost and come in a variety metals and non metals
What is progressive solidification?

the freezing of the liquids metal from the outside edge of the cast towards center



What is directional solidification?

the freezing of the liquid metal from one end of the cast towards the other end
What are cold shots?


intensely hard globular portions of surface of a ingot or casting formed by premature solidification upon first contact with the cold sand pouring




What is a cold shot?

a surface defect of a metal casting in the form or a discontinuity where two streams failed to unite

What is the pouring basin?

the initial opening used when transferring molten metal from ladle to the mold
What is the sprue?

a feed opening or vertical channel where molten metal is fed

What are the runners?

the channel (usually round) that connects the sprue with the gate system
What is the feed head?

a reservoir of molten metal that is left above a casting order to supply additional metal as the casting solidifies and shrinks
What are the gates (in-gates)?
the openings to a casting mold through which molten metal enters the cavity
What are eutectic metals?

eutectics are alloyed metals, but freeze at a temp that is lower than the freezing point that of the individual element within that alloy
What is segregation?

the non uniform distribution of alloying element, impurities or micro phases resulting in localized concentrations
What is super heat?

to heat excessively or over heat. To heat above its boiling point without causing vaporizing in a liquid metal
What is shrinkage?

is discontinuity which occurs within a cast metal during the process of solidification
What is a metal casting?

pouring a liquid metal into a mold and allowing that metal to solidify into a desired shape

What is a mold?

a cavity which imports its form to a fluid or a malleable substance

What is the pattern referred to in casting?

a form designed and used as a model. the pattern represents the finished product
What is brass composed of?


Copper and Zinc 5% to 40% zinc



What is bronze composed of?
Copper and Tin 5% to 22% tin
What is isotropic?

having tendency for equal growth and identical properties in all directions
What are the classes of steel?

carbon, alloy, stainless, tool and special steel
What are the 3 types of stainless steel?

martensitic, ferritic and austenitic
Name 5 types furnaces?

open hearth furnace, Bessemer converter, electric arc, basic oxygen and induction
What is purpose of coke in the furnace?
burns of o2 allowing metal to sink to the bottom of the furnace
What is the purpose of limestone in the furnace?

aid in the formation of slag - impurities float to the surface of the melt for extraction

What is pig (ingot)?


a crude casting convenient for transport, storage and smelting



What is pig iron?

refers to the composition of the mold tapped from the blast whether in liquid or solid state
What 3 classes does carbon steel come in?

low carbon steel, medium carbon steel and high carbon steel
What is tempering?

heat treatment of hardened steels to temp below the transformation temp range usually to improve toughness
What are the advantages of tempering?

stress relief, soften and provide a more ductile metal
What are the 4 methods of heat treating?

austentizing, annealing, normalizing and spheroidizing
What is the critical temp?

the temperature 912 degrees Celsius at which a change in crystal structure phase of physical properties

What is the purpose of heat treating?

to put metal into a state equilibrium

Changing the properties of steel can be accomplished by?


cold working, precipitation/hardening/age hardening/solution hardening, allotropic changes
What is Austenitization?
when iron is heated above the crucial temperature to refine grain structure and create new unstrained grain
What is normalizing?

heating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above the transformation range and then cool in air to a temperature well below the transformation range
What is annealing?
consist of raising a material to a certain temperature for a predetermined time, holding it at specific heat and cooling it back to a specific temperature

What is cementite?

a compound of iron + carbon called iron carbide
What is pearlite?

a crystalline structure of ferrite and cementite
What is ferrite?

a solid solution of one or more elements in a body centered cubic iron
What is spheroidizing?


used to produce a steel of minimum hardness and maximum ductility.




- forms small nodules of iron carbide (cementite) in a ferrite matrix

What is austempering?

is used to develop bainite
What is bainite?

an aggregate of ferrite and cementite
What are 3 main ways of hardening steel?

austenitization, fast cooling followed by austempering
What is martensite?

most of the heat treating hardening process is to form martensite


-a distinctive needle like structure


-martensite is magnetic

What is the carbon percentage of low carbon steel?

.06% to .25% carbon



What is the carbon percentage of medium carbon steel?

.25% to.50% carbon
What is the carbon percentage of high carbon steel?

.50% to 1.6% carbon
What are the 3 basic types of stress?

normal or tensile stress, shear stress and bending stress