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66 Cards in this Set

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The radiographic equivalents Factor allows an operator to make exposure corrections for variations in ________ and ________when other factors are constant.

Materials and alloys

Double sided film provides


-increased ______


-decreased ________ ________


-increased _________


compared to single side film

-Increase sensitivity


-decreased exposure time


-increase contrast

The image outline and desired hole of the IQI on the radiograph is permanent evidence that the radiograph examination achieved the specific ___________.

Sensitivity

The IQI is designed to determine the radiographic quality level usually referred to as.......

Whenever possible penetrameter placement is on the _____ side of the specimen.

Source

High radiographic contrast may be seen on low contrast film if?

Subject contrast is high

An Exposure chart gives exposure conditions to produce certain a density. If you need to shoot for another density you can calculate this from?

Film characteristic curve

List the three types of Transformers required in x-ray equipment.

-Step down (Filament)


-Step up (High voltage)


-Autotransformer

Radiographic sensitivity depends on?


-


-

-Specimen contrast


-Radiographic contrast

Subject contrast is affected by?


-


-


-

-Thickness difference in specimen


-Radiation quality


-Scattered radiation

The first detectable clinical effects of ionizing radiation would not be seen until exposures of about?

300 mGy (300mSv) = (30,000 mR)

Survey meter shall have a range of _____ through _____?

2 mR to 1 R


0.02 mSv to .01Sv

Define film contrast

The ability of film to detect and record different radiation exposures as differences in density is called film contrast.

Radiographic definition depends on what three factors?

-Geometry of the radiographic setup


-Film type


-Radiation quality

The energy required to remove a particle from the nucleus of an atom is called?

Binding energy

_______ Energy?

The anode is the ______ charged electrode?

Positive

The adjustment of tube current in conventional x-ray tube circuits is made by?

Adjusting the filament heating current

What is a sign that you have achieved radiographic definition when using a plaque type penetrameter?

You can see at least three sides of the penetrameter.

Radiographic definition = radiographic sensitivity

Fluorescent screens used in film radiography utilize chemicals on the screen surface that are _______, _______ and ________.

-Phosphorescent


-Luminescent


-Fluorescent

Define radiographic latitude

Range of thickness of material that can be recorded on film.

Kv goes up = Latitude goes up = Contrast goes down

When viewing film the lighting in the room should be _______?

Subdued

One method of increasing radiographic contrast with an Xray tube is?

Decrease the wavelength of the radiation used. (Decrease Kv)

After fixing, each film is washed for a period of time equal to ______ the fixing time.

Double

For practical purposes the shape of the characteristic curve of an xray film is?

Independent of the quality of radiation

The value of 1 Gy can be given in what measurement of energy?

1 joule/Kg

Stochastic

Occurs by chance, often shows up years later. (Chronic effects)

Pocket dosimeters and electronic personal dosimeters shall be capable of measuring exposures from _______ to _______?

0 to 200 mR


0 to 2 mSv

The degree of graininess of an exposed film depends on what 4 factors?

-Grain size


-Quality of radiation


- Film processing conditions


-Type of film screens

The quantity of radiation striking a unit area of film is?

The product of radiation intensity and time.

Good radiographic contrast is achieved with the proper?


-


-


-

-Radiation quality


-Processing


-Density

If film sticks together or to the tank wall during processing the result will be?

Clear patches

The unit of absorbed dose in SI system is called the _______?

Gray

The part of the cathode that directs electrons in a path toward the target is called?

Focusing Cup

Non metallic weld inclusions are generally termed?

Slag

A positive or negative charge is placed on the cathode?

Negative

Images of discontinuities close to the source side of the specimen become less clearly defined as?

The thickness of the specimen increases

Most thermo-luminescence dosimeters use _______ _______ crystals.

Lithium fluoride

If the tube current is doubled the X-radiation emitted will also be doubled?


True or False?

True

The _______ is a tungsten wire coil that with current applied gets very hot and serves as an electron source.

Filament

Using a filter on an xray tube beam hardens or softens the X-radiation?

Hardens

A film permitting 1% of the incident light would have a density of?

2.0

With regards to the biological effects of ionizing radiation the term direct effect indicates?

DNA was ionized

What is the annual maximum permissible dose in REM and Sieverts?

5 REM = 0.05 Sv

If an inadequate supply of metal due to low heat or current occurs during the root pass of a weld the result could be?

Incomplete penetration

Dark Crescent shapes on a processed radiograph are a result of?

Bending or crimping the film after exposure

The sharpness of a radiographic image outline. ie: the abruptness of density transition is termed radiographic _______?

Definition

Radiographic contrast is defined as?

-The difference in density between two selected portions


-It is a combination of subject contrast and film contrast.

Current flow through the tube is controlled by the current applied to the filament?


True or False?

True

Radiographic contrast is the some of ________ and _______?

Film contrast & Subject contrast

100 Rad = ____ Gy

1

The step down transformer is also called the __________ transformer?

Filament

What are two common filters used in conjunction with x-ray tubes?

Copper, Beryllium

Convert 3000 mGy into Severts.

3 sV

When producing radiographs, if the Kv is increased the subject contrast __________?

Decreases

Radiation Energy



Higher Kv


= more or less latitude


= higher or lower contrast

Higher Kv


= more latitude


= lower contrast

Smallest detail that can be seen on a radiograph is generally defined as?

Sensitivity

The kilovoltage applied to an x-ray tube affects?


-Quality of beam


or


-Penetrating ability of beam

Both

The step-up transformer is also called the _________ voltage transformer.

High

X-ray tubes are cooled with.


-________


-________


-________

-Water


-Air


-Oil

What is graininess?

The visible evidence of the grouping into clumps of the minut silver particles.

Developing is the chemical process of reducing silver bromide particles in the exposed area of the film emultion to metallic __________?

Silver

What is the minimum time required for fixing?

3 minutes minimum or


2 to 3 times the films clearing time.(not to exceed 15mins)

The severity of wormhole porosity or Hollow bead is usually determined by _________ and _________?

Amount and Length

What is the Umbra

The visible image on the radiograph (darkest part of the shadow)

The width of the penumbral shadow is defined in radiographic images as?

Geometrical unsharpness

All other factors being equal, if an x-ray tube is operated at 3mA for an exposure than at 6mA for another,


the beam of the second exposure will be ________ the intensity

Double

How much money am I going to make when this is all over?

lots and lots!