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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the primary purpose of inferential statistics

To make a judgment about a population, or the total collection of all elements about which a researcher seeks information
Sample Statistics
Measures computed from sample data
Population parameters
measured characteristics of a specific population
Frequency Distribution
A set of data organized by summarizing the number of itmes a particular value of a variable occurs
Percentage Distribution
A frequency distribution organized onto a table that summarizes percetnage vlaues associated with particular values of a variable
The long run relative frequency with which an event will occur
Top Box Scores
Proportion of respondents who chose the most positive choice in a multiple choice quesiton
Measures of Central tendency
Mean Median and Mode
The arithmetic average
The midpoint; the value below which half the values in a distirbution fall
The value that occurs most often
The Range
The distance between the smallest and the largest values of a frequency distribution
Deviation Scores
Indicate how far any observation is from the mean dii=Xi - X
A measure of variability or dispersion. It's square root is the standard deviation
Standard Deviation
A Quanititative index of a distribution spread, or variability; the square root of the variance for a distribution.
The average of the amount of variance for a distribution. USed to calculate the likelihood of an event occurring.
Normal Distribution
A symmetrical bell shaped distribution (normal curve) that describes the expected probabiltiy distribution of many chance occurences. 99% of it's values are within +/- 3 standard deviations from its mean
Standardized Normal Distribution
A purely theorietical probability distribution that reflects a specific normal curve for the standard value, z.
What are the characteristics of a Standardized Normal Distribution
It is symmetrical about its mean
The mean identifies the normal curve's highest point and the vertical line about which this normal curve is symmetrical
The normal curve has an infinite number of cases and the area under the curve has a probabilty desnity equal to 1.0
The standardized normal distirbution has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1
Standardized Values
Used to compare an individual value to the population man in units of the standard deviation
Population Distribution
A frequency distribution of a population
Sampling Distribution
A theoretical probability distribution of sample means for all possible samples of a certain size drawn from a particular population
Standard Error of the Mean
The standard deviation of the sampling distribution
Central Limit Theorem
The theory that as sample size increases, the distribution of sample means of size n, randomly selected, approaches a normal distribution
Point Estimate
An estimate of the population mean in the form of a single value, usually the sample mean
Confidence Interval Estimate
A specified range of numbers iwthin which a population mean is expected to lie
An estimate of the population mean based on the knowledge that it will be equal to the sample mean plus or minus a sampling error
Confidence Level
A percentage or decimal value that tells how confident a researcher can be about being correct. It states the long run percetnage of confidence intervals that will incldue the true population mean. The crux of the problem for a researcher is determine how much random sampling error to tolerate. Traditionally, reaserchers have used the 95% confidence level (a 5% tolerance for error)
Standard Deviation
Magnitude of Error
Confidence Level
Approximate value of the population mean
X +/- Zcl.Sx
diminishing returns
random sampling error is inversely proportional to the square root of n.
Variance (or Heterogeneity)
A heterogeneous population has more variance (a larger standard deviation) which will require a larger sample. A homogenous population has less variance which permits a smaller sample
Magnitude of Error (Confidence Interval)
How precise the estimate must be
Confidence Level
How much error will be tolerated