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145 Cards in this Set

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Maslow's Hierachy of Needs

Use this for a frame for all questions. Always establish basic needs first- food, water, shelter, safety. Then emmotional and eventually self-acutaulization
What are the most important things to remember when working with a client
Right to self-determination and safety of the client and others
What are we mandated to report
child abuse, elder abuse, sucide risk
Expressive vs. Receptive Langauge
Expressive- articulation basic
Receptive- more advanced, ability to express feelings and emotions
Id
First state of Freaud strucutral theory. Seat or primitive drives, instinctive needs, self driven impulses- primary process
Ego
Mediator btwn id and external reality. Moderates conflicts, adaptive, Major function is reality testing, judgement, object relations, regulate self-esteem.

Superego

Seat of Consceince, Ego ideal. Uses internal and extermal rewards or punishemnts to control and regulate id impulsies

Three levels of the Mind

Unconcious- thoughts feelings, desires, memories which we are unaware.
Preconcious - thoughts, feelings whih can easily be brought to consiousness
Concious - mental actiives of which we are fully aware.
Sensorimotor - Piaget
0-2 y.o. Retains image of object. Begins intentiola actions, play is imitiative, signals of meanings- ex. babysitter arrives = mom is leaving
Preoperational
2-7 y.o. lang development enables symbolc functioning to occur. Ego centered, magical thinking, no firm reality, concert thoughts, can comprehend past present future.
Concrete operations
7-11 yo begin abstract thought, cause and efect, rules important, 'thats not fair' linar thinking, logic developed
Formal operations
11- 15 y.o. higher level of abstraction, construction of ideals, planning for future, thinks hypotetically. assumes adult roles
Basis of Ericksons Theory of Psychosocial developement
Emphasizes that tehre are sturggles that we must resolve.
Infancy: Trust vs. mistrust
need for stable caregiver. esp. fom 6-12 mo. to estabilsh early attachement and sense of self. child gradually reconizes seperation from self and mother
Object relations - Mahler
0-3 months - attachemnt 3-6 months - no differation btwn self and caregiver
6-12 months -seperation and invividuation, 8 months - stranger anxiety
8-18 months - start to disengage from mother - practicing
18-24 months-Rapproachment 0 intergration process - splitting of objects to good and bad
24- 38 months - Object constancy - can subsitiute image of mother during seperation from her.
Repression
So painful you forget and memory/event is lost in your unconcious mind. amnesia (dif from denial)
Compensation
to make up for
Conversion
repressed urge is expressed disguesed as a disturbance of the body function- pain, deafness, convulsions - real not ficticous
Denial
actievly refuse to reconize reality. most common, used with addicts, in concious mind
Displacement
shift target to something less threatening, take it out on someone else
Dissociation
Process which enables a person to split mental functions in a manner that allows them to express forbidden or uncousios impulsess w/out taking reponsibilty for them. patholgically exprssed as a fuge state, amnesia or normally expressed in day dreaming
Idealization
Overestimation of an admired aspect of attribute of anothe - conscous or unconcous
Idenfication
univeral mechnism whereby a person patterns himself ather a significant other - plays major role in personlit development, esp superego
Incorporation
Primitive mechanism in which psychic repreation of a peerson or parts of a person are figureatively ingested
Inhbiition
loss of motivation to engage in plearureable activites
Introjection
loved or heated external objects are symbolocally absorbed within self converse projection in sever depression, unconcicous unaccapetable hatread towards self
Isolation of Affect
unacceptable impulse, idea, act is sperate from origanal memory source -
Projection
Attributing ones disowned attitudes, wishes, feelings, urges to some exteral object. aniexty is reduced by creating a negative thought about someone else.
Rationalization
to make sense of something. giving a belieable explanation for irrational behavior
Reaction Formation
person adopts affects, ideas, attitutudes, behaviors, that are opposite of those he harbors consciously or uncoucnsioly,. ex. excessive moral zeal maksing strong but repressed asocial impulsies or being excessively sweet to mask uncousous anger
Regression
to return to a more infiantile patter of acting or thinking.
Sublimation
potenaally maladaptive feelings or behaviors are diverted into socailly acceptable adative challnes - ex angry person puts all energy into sports
Substitution
unattainable goal is replaced by a more attainbale one .
Symbolization
a mental response stands for some other thing. ususally uncouncous.
Splitting
assoc with borderline seeing someone or self as all good or all bad. Ego weakness, cant neutralize aggression. lack of impulse control.
Projective Identification
a form of projection ultized by persons with borderline personaluty organization. * Unconciously perciving others behavior as a reflection of ones own identification
Devaluation
used by borderline in which a person attributes axaggerated negative qulaities to self or another. It is the split of primative idealization
Decompensation
deteriation of existing defenses
Stages of Death and Dying
Deinal and isolaotion 'its not me'
Anger ' why me'
Barganing attempt to avert fate-coopertive
Depressio - sense of loss and grief
Acceptatnce - deviod of feelings 0 detached
At what age to kids understand that death is irreversable?
at age 7 it becomes a permanat concept
Stranger Anxiety / Seperation Anxiety
Stranger Aniexty 6-8 monhd - fear of unfarmilar

Seperation Anxeity - 12 months - fear of being left by parents

Prolonger Serpation anxiety - 18 months
three parenting styles`
Authratrian -very restrictive, dont explain rules, forceful punishment

Authortiative- flexibile, autonomy with restrictions - achivemtn oritnted

Premissive- lax pattern of parenting, few demands, dont monitor kids, impulsive and aggresive.
DV and social workers responsibilty
medical needs met, not under legal obligation to report DV, but from an ethical standpoint, we should encourage the abused person to protect self. Dont use family thearpy!
Ethnocentric
Hold own culture at center and ideal
Pluralism
a socitey where diverse members maintain own traditions while cooperating and working together. See others own traits as valable. Allowing diveristy
Universalism
there are other valid standards that have been developed by people which they have determined ot be most used ful to them.
Parochialism
means being provincial, being narrow in scope, or considering only small sections of an issue. It may, particularly when used pejoratively, be contrasted to globalism.
Equifinality
Arriving at the same point through diffrent approaches, techniques or routes
Cultural relativism
principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood in terms of his or her own culture.
Cultural pluralism
a term used when small groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities. One of the most notable cultural pluralisms is the caste system, which is related to Hinduism.
PIE System
Person in Enviroment - a more comphrensive view of client. focus on axis 4 - pscyho social
Mental status exam
in assessment - includes appearance, memory, orientation, altertness, thought process, similar to medical exam
Dissocative Idenity Disorder
formerly mult. personality disorder - has been renamed
Axis I
Mental disorders, clinical syndromes and V codes. Maybe more than one dignosis, includes developmental delays.
Axis II
Only personality disoders & Mental retardation. personality traits or habiltal use of a particular defense mech
Axis I and II
Specify serity of disorder- mild, moderate, server- in remission. Note specificers and subtypes-
Axis III
General Medical Conditions
Axis IV (4)
Psychosocial and Enviromental problems - housing, job, relationships, finances...
Axis V
GAF rate - 1 lowest 100 highest. can be a scale if refecting a time period.
Substance Induced Mood/Aniexty disorder
panic attack, deprssion from use or with drawl of substance
Conduct Disorder vs. Antisocial Disorder
Conduct under 18 yo around 12-13 yo Antisocial in adult. Law and rule breaking, lacking emotions, not concern for consequences.
Examples of Reaction Disorders
PTSD, Acute stress discored, adujustment disorder, Berevement.
Examamples of Chroic Disorders
All personality disorders- schizophreania, dysthymic, Gernralized anxiety, somatization
Paraphilias
Inappropriate sexual object or practice. not sexual dysfunction
Parasomnias
abnormal events during sleep.
Dyssomnia
Disturbances in sleep, amount timing quality
Classic Symptoms of Depression
changes in appitite, wt, sleep, fatique, energy decrease, decrease in sexual desire and function
Factitious Disorder
vs
Malingering
Malingerer fakes or produces symptons in order to obtain an extrenal rewaard or achice a goal.
Factitous disorder the patient produces symptims due to a psyological need to adopt the 'sick role'. When someon with a Factitouhs disodred produces physical symptoms, the disorder is called Munchausen syndrome- when its by a caregiver its munchausen by proxy * Child abuse!*
Schixotypal Personality Disorder
Magical thinking associated w/ this disorder
Hyperthyrodism vs Hypothyrodism
Hyper - can mimic symptoms of mania,
Hypo- can mimic depression
Delirium Vs, Demntia
Delirium- change in level of consciuness and orientation 'delirous', rapid onest, caused by med condition or substace- scene in med emegency
Dementia- disturbance in memory impairment and congnitive imarement associate with alzheimers- over time worsens, medical condition result of strokes
Cluster A - "Odd and Eccentric" Personality Disorders
Parinoid, Schizoypal and Schizoid
Cluster B - Dramatic emotional, erratic personality disorders
Borderline, Antisocial, histrionic, narcissistic
Cluster C - Anxious and fearful personality disorders
Avoidant, dependent, obssessive-compulsive
Dissociation
Disturbance or change in the ususal intergrative functions of memory, idenity, perceptions or conciousness. Seen in patients w/ trauma
Comorbid
Existing with or at the same time: EX having two illnesses at the same time
Contraindictaed
Not recommended, not safe
Endogenous Depression
Depressionc caused by a BIOchemical imbalance rather than psychosocal stressor or extrenal factor
Exogenous Depression
Caused by an EXtrenal event or psychosoical stressory
Folie a Deux
Shared Delusion. a person may develop a delusional system as a result of a close relationship with a person who already has an established delusional system
Hypomanic
elevated expanisve irraitbale mood, not full-blown manic.
Postmorbid
Subsequent to onset of illness
Premorbid
Prior to the onset of an illness
Promomal
a period of time before the onset of a serious illness during which there maybe subtle symptoms.
Schizophrenia
2 or more symptoms during a 6-month period or less if treated.
delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, poverty of speech, inapporpriate behavior, pacing, rocking, depersonaization, loss of interest or pleasure - anhedonia, sleep and appitite disturbance
Major Depression
5 or more symptoms for a 2 week period and most create a change in functioning. Must have depressed mood or anhedonia
wt. loss or wt gain, insomia or hypersomnia, pyshomotor agiattion, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, lack of concentration, recurrnet thoughts of death with or without a plan.
NOS Category
Not otherwise specified. doesnt meet all crieteria byt has symptoms in patterns Ex. psychotic Disorder - NOS or Dementia - NOS
Bipolar Disorder* /Manic Depression
Treat with Lithium -
Bipolar I - only one manic episode and no past depressive eposides
Bipolar II - history of Major depressive episodes - at least one hypomanic episode- NEver a manic episode
Manic symptoms - elevated or irritalbe mood lasting at least 1 week, inflate selse of self- grandiosity, preseured speech, distractibity, rapid speech, crying, racing thoughts
Personality Disorder
enduring patterns of inner expereinces and behaviors that feviates markedly from the expecatios of the individuals cutlrure - the patter is manifestied in two or more of these areas - congintion - pervigin and interperint self, others , events 2) affectiivty - range and instesity, level of appropriateness of emtotional response. 3) Interpersonal functioning 4) impulse control. also- pervasive and inflexible, onset in adolescence or early childhood - patter is stable and of long duration. leads to distress and impariment
* Borderline Personality Disorder*
unstable self-image, relationships, emotions, and affects and impulse control. Must have 5 or more of the following criteria - intense unstable relationships/ frantic effforts to avoid abondonment / impulsive behavior - sex, substance, spending, binging / indenity disturbance / Recurrent suicidal behavior/ chronic feelings of emptines/ inappropriate, intese anger/ self mutilation/ stress-related parinoia /
People with BPD see as all good or all bad, use splitting as defense mech, can switch quicily from idealizing to devauling a person
Examples of Anxiety Disorders
Panic w. or w.out agoraphobia, Specific phobia, social phobia, OCD, PTSD, Acute Stress, Generlized anxiety, Anxiety due to med condition, substance induced anxiety, Anxiety disorder- NOS
ADHD
Requires symptoms to occur in at lest two different settings or situations. Symptoms can increse under stressful situations or can decrease when controlled. failure to remain attentive.
Opppositional Disorder
In children - Definat! display aggresiveness by patterns of obstinate but generally passive behavior. They appear to be conforming, but they continually provoke adults and other kids. Use negatism, stubborness, procastination, NOT conduct disorder, dont have symptoms of violating rights of others.
Reactive attachement Disorder
RAD- occurs from gross neglect or deprivation, multiple caregivers - inhibited or disinhitbited- over or under attachment to others - seen in foster and adopted children
Seperation Anixety
panic when away from caregiver or materal figure - school phobia is a form of this.
Avoidant behavior
timidly avoid the estbilsment of new interperonal contacts or ordinary relatiobshops with strangers. May have strong relationships in the home
Autistic Disorder
onset in infancy before age 3. Failure to develop the usual relatedness to parents and other people. lack social smile, avoid eye contact, fail to cuddle, fail to develop normal language and may use non-verbal comands in place of speech. Some autistic children develop echoliaria - the meaningless repitition of what others say. occurs 4-5 times more frequently in males.
Adjustment Disorder
maladaptive reaction to an idenfiable source of stress such as a death in family or divorce, onet of symptoms w. in 3 months of source of stress - duration maybe up to 6 months.
Rhetts Disorder
development of persistantand progressive developmental regression after a period of normal development. Onset is usually before age of 4, normally btwn 1 and 2 yo. Hand movemets, problems with coodinations, profound mental retradation, sever expressive and receltive lang development, - seen only in females!
Aspergers Disorder
Normal communication, but social development - in contrast to autistic disoder, children show no clincally significant delays in lang, cong, development, self-help skills- just deprived in social interactions. Severe and sustained impairment of social interactios and restricted repertive patterns of behavior, interests and activities. More common in boys
main Antipsycotic Drugs
Haldol, Prolixin, Zyprexa, thorazine
Haldol
Most common antipshychotic drug- can be an injectable. SCHIZOPHRENIA
Three categories of Antidepressants
TCA's - Tricyclic antidepressents ex. Elavil, tofranil,
MAOI's - Most effective for treating atypical depression and non-endogenous depressios - Nardil, Marplan,
SSRI's - second generation - Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil,
Mood Stalizers
used to treat bipolar disorder - Lithium main one can have serious side effects on kindneys, thyroid, wt gain,
What drug should be used to treat Bipolar
Lithium
What drug should be used to treat schizoprenia
Haldol or antipshycotic
What drugs should be used to treat depression
Elvail, TCAs MAOI's, SSRI's zoloft, prozac,
What are Anti- Anxiety Meds
Xanex, Valium, Atvan, Zoloft, nenexodiazepines, barbituates
What should be used to treat panic disorders
Tricyclic antidressants, MAOI's, alprazolam, xanax, SSRI's
What should be used to treat OCD
Tricyclic, antidepressants, MAOIs, SSRI's, fluvoxamine, luvox, zoloft
What should be used to treat general anxiety disorder
Benzodiazepines- safer than barbituates - less addictive, ex, Valium, librium, ativan, tranxene,
What are the side effects of benzodiazepines -
Imparied muscle coodination, psychomotor functions , impairmment of short term memory
what is the strongest predictive factor of developing an alcohol problem
family history
What are Wernickes Encephalopathy and Korsakoffs syndrome?
Vit B difiencys associated w chronic abuse of alcohol. can lead to memory loss- treatment is to adminster thiamine
What is a muscot
the role of a child in a family with alcohol use/abuse/dependency - child remains funny and charing to allivete pain of suffering members
Substance Abuse vs. Dependency
Abuse - impairment of life- problems in relationships, job, legal
Dependency- must hae toloerance or whithdrwal symptoms - major impariment on life
What is antabuse Medication
produces highly unpleasent side effects flusing, nausa, vomoting, hyptension and axiety if paitent drinks. Form of aversion thearpy.
What is Methadone
Syntetic narcotic taken instead of opiates can be legally prescribed. Patient uses it ti detox from opiates or on a dialy basis as a subsititue for heroin
What two dianosis always need meds?
Schizophrenia and Bi-polar
What age group has the highest suicide rate?
Age 65 plus
highest rate white men over 85 years old
Which gender has the higher suicide rate?
Men, 4 times more likely to be successful. Females are more likely to attempt.
How does sexual orientation effect suicide?
LGBT youth are 2 to 3 times more likely to commit suicde than other youtsh. 30 percent of attemoted or completed suicides are related to sexual identiy

What are some suicide risk factors?

Substnace abuse, depression, anxiety, personlity disorder, family history of suicide, losses of job, realtionship, social, finance, presenes of firearm, antisocial behavir, family violences, under 30 or over 65, medical condition
What are symptoms of Sexual child abuse?
range from sexual promiscous behavior, anti sexual behavir, change in mood, behavior, reatcion to others, substance abuse, suicidal, internalizing blame, damaged goods, powerlessness, avoidant
What is the main frame work for CPS
Best interst of child! Should always dictate intervetion.
What are the six stages of CPS process
Intake, intial assessment and investigation, Family assessment, Case planning, service provision, Evaluation or family progres and case closure * Make a permancy plan*
What are the child abuse reporting rules for mandated reporters
Report with in 36 hours, if there is suspected abuse, under 18 yo abuse, neglect, can be parent or other perpertrator, call childline. we are encourage to share our identity to help with investigation
Biofeedback
behavioral traning tech includs deep breathing, guided images, for axiety, ADHD, chronic pain, goal to slow heart rate
6 stages of referall process
clarify need or purpose
reseaching resouces
discuss ad select options w/ client
Planning inital contact
inital contach btwn client and referral souces
follow-up
Stages of helping relationship
Begining/middle/end
contact. contract. action. termination
Problem solving process
engagement. gathering info. assessing and diagnosis. goal setting. intervention. evaluation. termination
Intervenive Skills
Relationships, helping - problem solving, resouce finding and linking, use of professional self, working with diff systems - indviual, gorup, insistions, communities
Systems Theory
concept of interacting parts contained w.in boundaries.
Transactional term- client-worker unit of attention is explane to include life space or field of relevant systems. Humans viewed as active, purposeful, goal-seeking organisms,
Terms - homostesis,input, output, thorughput, negative entropy, entrophy, equifinality, feedback
Enthropy
no energy from outside, using up its own energy and expriing closed system
Negative Enthropy
counter acting enthropy, sucessful use of available nergy
Feedback
when output from systems is putback into system
Ecological / Life Systems Model
PIE- Person in enviorment - Focuses on the interrelatedness btwn people and their enviorment. developed from quility of life issues and concerns for enviroment, Looks at the degree of fit btwn person and enviroment. More hummanized lang approach than systems theory
Terms: Adaptenss, niche, habitat, positive stress, negative stress, coping
4 'P's' of Perlmans problem solving approach
Person, problem, place, process (thearputic realtionship)

Pschoanalytical Theory - Freud

treatment of past and repessed material in unconscious. id, ego, superego, fixation is failure to reslove conflict at any state of development. Assumes nothign is random, structual mode, dymanic principle, Genetic Principle - early childhood experence is extremly important in personality development
Indiviual Psychology - Adler
Holistic thearoy of personlity development and psychotherapy. Indivudals have a single drive or motivation behind all their behavior, and that motivation is a 'striving for perfection; In that respect a person is always drwan towards future to reach fullfilment and perfection
Addresses feeling of inferiort that develop as a child (real and percived) focuses on overcoming feelings of inferiority and self-centeredness.
Client- centered thearpy- Nondirective
human beings are basically good. people have a force in life motivtion.
is a hummanistic / existenial model
Gestalt Therapy
to seek hightened awaness, use of dramitisation, split-off parts of self, involves layers of funtion, process oriented, focuses on awareness, wholenss, contact ,and self regualtion. the intergration of mind, body, though and action are central to approach. Focus on the here and now. take responsibilty for thoughts and feelings and actions. Not for people with implusies or lack of self control. Doesnt believe in repression, group process used, empty chair used, role playing, directed awareness.
Transactional Analysis
life script- Im ok- youre okay (4 versions) Game anaysis, life positions, script treatment,....
Postmodern Model
Movement based on the premis that truth is not absolute. In reaction to modernism commited to using scientific inquiry in seach of universal laws and truths that would explain natural phenomena
Narrative Theapy
Postmodern - no objective reality. People construct knowlage about themselfes and social reaction. we create our own stories. goal to help clients deconstruct lives and stories. and change stories so they can discoer new realities and truths for themselves.