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178 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of speech sounds; how they are produced in the vocal tract (articulatory phonetics), their physical properties (acoustic phonetics), and how they are perceived (auditory phonetics)
The study of the sound system of language; how the particular sounds used in each language form an integrated system for encoding information and how such systems differ from one language to another.
The study of the ways in which words are constructed out of smaller units that have a meaning or grammatical function
The study of the way in which sentences are constructed; how sentences are related to each other
The study of meaning; how words and sentences are related to the (real or imaginary) objects they refer to and the situations they describe
The study of how the meaning conveyed by a word or sentence depends on aspects of the context in which it is used (such as time, place, social relationship between speaker and hearer, and speaker's assumptions about the hearer's beliefs.)
Historical linguistics
The study of how languages change through time and the relationships among languages
Computational linguistics
Addressing the subject matter o natural language processing by applying methods of computer science
The study of the interrelationships of language and social structure, of linguistic variation, and of attitudes towards language.
The study of the interrelationship of language and cognitive structures, the acquisition of language, how the brain stores and accesses linguistic knowledge.
The study of the brain and the biological and neural foundations of language
Anthropological linguistics
The study of the interrelationship between language and culture (particularly in the context of non-Western cultures and societies)
Applied linguistics
The application of the methods and results of linguistics to such areas as language teaching, national language policies, lexicography, translation, language in politics, advertising, education, courts, and the like
Documentary linguistics
The recording, analyzing, and archival of texts (spoken language), dictionary compilation and grammatical description of primarily less-studied languages
Mental grammar
The rules that allow you to produce grammatical utterances that comprise the grammar of a language
Prescriptive grammar
The sense of the word "grammar" that we hear in school; the rules of "correct" speech that don't necessarily reflect how we talk at home or with friends.
Descriptive grammar
A model of what people actually say
Something a native speaker would say
What you know
How you use what you know
Mode of communication
There is a means by which messages are communicated; i.e. vocal-auditory, visual, tactile, or chemical
There are associate ties between the signal and features of the world; i.e. the signals have meaning
Pragmatic function
Systems of communication serve some useful purpose, i.e., as a warning, etc.
There is no intrinsic relationship between the form of a word or other expression, and its meaning.
Human language can make statements not only about the here-and-now, but also about events, states, actions, and processes partly or entirely beyond the place and time of utterance.
Creativity (recursion)
Words and other elements are combined according to general rules into sentences and other constructs, and these constructs can (theoretically) be of any length; therefore, speakers can create and understand an infinite number of such constructs.
Human languages can form expressions about any subject matter; there is no restriction on what can be talked about
Sound units (phonemes) are the building blocks of roots, prefixes, suffixes, and words; but words--not sounds--are the building blocks of sentences
Humans have a biological disposition to acquire and use human languages; all healthy humans with exposure to human language during the critical period learn a language or languages.
Cultural transmission
In spite of our biological capacity for language, language systems are acquired by children on the basis of the systems of the humans around them. Without exposure to human language, otherwise healthy children do not learn to speak
International Phonetic Alphabet - IPA
- In late 1800s, English & French schoolteachers got together to address spelling inconsistencies across the languages.
- resulted in formatin of what would later be called International Phonetic Association
- created Latin-based writing system for writing phonetics
Vocal folds
Muscles in the throat that vibrate when held close together while air is passing through, creating a buzzing sound
The passage way between the vocal folds, through which air passes
The "voice box," the vocal folds and the glottis
The little flag that closes when we swallow so food doesn't go down the wrong way
The wind pipe
The passage above the larynx at the back of the throat
Alveolar ridge
The ridge immediately behind the teeth
Hard palate
Behind the alveolar ridge, the hard surface at the roof of mouth
The soft palate, the soft area behind the hard palate
Nasal cavity
The passage between the nostrils and back of the velum
Oral cavity
The passage in the mouth between the pharynx and the outside world
Segmental level
The discrete units of speech, what we would call the sequence of different sounds that make up speech
Suprasegmental level
Speech features that ride on top of the segments, such as pitch (tone, intonation) ands stress (emphasis); can be represented in written form
Sounds made with some type of obstruction to air flow through the vocal tract
Sounds made with no such obstruction, although the vocal tract is "shaped" differently to create different vowels
Place of articulation
Where in the vocal tract the obstruction is made
Manner of articulation
What type of obstruction is made
The glottis: whether the vocal folds are vibrating or not
Complete blockage of the air passage in the oral cavity. Pressure builds up behind the closure and when release, a sound is made. [p, b, m, t, d, n, k, g, ŋ, ʔ]
A near complete obstruction is made in the oral cavity. Air passes through the narrow opening and produces a turbulent noise called friction. [f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h]
Air flow is completely stopped as in a stop, but upon release of the closure the obstruction is maintained as in a fricative [ʧ, ʤ]
An obstruction is made in the oral cavity but to a lesser extent than in a fricative. No friction is created. The articulators approximate one another. Any further separation of the articulators would result in a vowel sound. [w, j, ɹ, l, ʍ]
[w, j] - names so because they tend to occur where a consonant glides into a vowel.
[ɹ, l] - those two sounds in English are acoustically very similar.
[l] - named so because the airflow is lateral, over the side(s) of the tongue
[ɹ] - means the tongue tip is curled (flexed) backwards (retro)
Voicing is a two-way distinction; consonants are either voiced or voiceless.
The vocal folds are spread apart and therefore do not vibrate.
The vocal folds are tensed and brought close enough so that they vibrate when air passes through.
Voiced consonants
[b, d, g, v, ð, z, ʒ, ʤ, m, n, w, j, l, ɹ] - English
Voiceless consonants
[p, t, k, f, θ, s, ʃ, ʧ, ʔ, h]
- height: high, mid, low
- openness: front, central, back
- roundedness: rounded, unrounded
- tenseness: tense, lax
Vowels - height & frontness
- describe roughly the position of the tongue in the oral cavity
Vowels - roundedness
- describes if the lips are rounded or not
Vowels - tenseness
- describes if the tongue is relatively closer to the center of the oral cavity (lax) or if it is peripheral (tense)
High vowels
- [i], [ɪ], [u], [ʊ]
Mid vowels
- [e], [ɛ], [ə], [ʌ], [ɔ], [o]
Low vowels
- [æ], [ɑ]
Front vowels
- [i], [ɪ], [e], [ɛ], [æ]
Central vowels
- [ə]
Back vowels
- [u], [ʊ], [a], [ɔ], [o]
Unrounded vowels
- [i], [ɪ], [e], [ɛ], [ə], [ʌ], [æ], [ɑ]
Rounded vowels
- [u], [ʊ], [ɔ], [o]
Lax vowels
- [ɪ], [ɛ], [ʊ], [ɔ], [ə], [ʌ]
Tense vowels
- [i], [e], [u], [o], [ɑ]
- simple vowels, single sound segment
- complex vowel, 2 sounds
- vowel + glide
- sounds (consonants) in which the airflow is fully or partially obstructed.
- oral stops, affricates, fricatives
- sounds (consonants and vowels) where the airflow is unobstructed.
- vowels, nasal stops, liquids, glides
- sounds in which the air in the oral cavity is completely obstructed.
- oral stops, affricates, nasal stops
- sounds in which the air flows continuously out of the mouth.
- vowels, all other consonants.
Syllabic sounds
- sounds that feature as the core of a syllable
- refers to the suprasegmental features of speech, such as sound length, stress patterns, tone, and intonation
Stress-timed languages
- have at least one stressed syllable per word
- German, English, Portuguese...
Syllable-timed languages
- all syllables in same duration, no syllable that is more stressed than another
- French, Spanish...
Tone languages
- languages where a change in pitch can be the difference between two words
Register tone
- pitch is level across syllable or vowel
Contour tone
- pitch rises or falls in the same syllable or vowel
Sounds in phonetics vs sounds in phonology
- Phonetics: sounds are gradient
- Phonology: sounds are categorical
- smallest distinctive unit of sound in a language
- sounds that create a contrast in meaning
- the sounds that a phoneme is pronounced as in real linguistic performance, often context dependent
Minimal pair
- two forms that differ in only one sound and differ in meaning
- proof that two sounds are contrastive, and therefore phonemes
Complementary distribution
- don't occur in the same environment
- allophones of the same phoneme
Contrastive distribution
- separate phonemes
- are in same environment, like in a minimal pair, and make a contrast in meaning
Phonological rules
- the rules that determine sound patterns and govern the distribution of allophones
- mental dictionary
- the words we know in the languages we speak
Word class
- part of speech
- general term for a preposition or postposition
Open class
- word class that can easily take in new members
- nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
Closed class
- word class that does not easily add new members
- adpositions, conjunctions, interjections, articles, auxiliaries, pronouns, numerals
Content words
- tend to be specific or concrete in meaning
- tend to be large classes
- low frequency of occurrence
- tend to be in open classes
Function words
- tend to have an abstract, general or no meaning
- tend to be small classes
- may have a high frequency of occurrence
- tend to be in closed classes
- smallest part of a word that is meaningful
Free morpheme
- can exist independently
Bound morpheme
- affix that cannot exist alone
- ish, un, ly, bi, ing
- single, unanalyzable anchoring unit in a word (can't be further broken down)
Free root
- can occur without any other morpheme
- host for morphological elaboration
- all roots are stems, but not all stems are roots
- linguistic unit that the native speaker can pronounce and interpret by itself
- creating new words and parts of speech from existing words
Derivational morpheme
- added to stem to derive new word & meaning
- usually results in a change of word class
- creating different grammatical forms of existing words
Inflectional morpheme
- added to stem to mark grammatical functions and relations
- morphological processes that can be used in new instances
- addition of a bound affix (or affixes) after a stem to form a new stem
- addition of a bound affix or affixes before a stem to form a new stem
- addition of a bound affix within a stem to form a new stem
- inside the root
- addition of both a prefix and a suffix to form a new stem
- the addition of an affix or a compound element to a stem that is a phonological copy of all or part of the original stem, to form a new stem
Vowel change
- the change of a stem vowel to form a new stem
Consonant change
- the change of a stem consonant to form a new stem
Stress change
- a change of stem stress to form a new stem
Tone change
- in some languages, a change in the tone of a word can form a new stem
- the substitution of an entirely different stem to form a new word or stem
Concatenative morphology
- morphemes are strung together in a linear fashion
- compounding, affixing
Nonconcatenative morphology
- morphemes do not operate in a linear fashion
- vowel alternation, tone, stress...
Morphology - analysis
1. Describe
2. Analyze
3. Generalize & Hypothesize
4. Test
- identical phonological forms
- different morphemes with different functions/meanings
- different phonological forms
- same morpheme with same functions/meanings
- suffix (stem elaboration) that is positioned like a function word
Word coinage
- processes that form new words in a language
- folk etymology, taboo deformation, back formation, clipping, recutting, blending
- study of sentence formation
- combination of words to build sentences
- sequencing of words to build sentences
Linguistic competence (knowledge)
- mental lexicon (words) + mental grammar (rules)
- group of words that function together as a discrete unit within a sentence
Constituency tests
- replacement test: can you replace with a proform?
- move as a unit test: it can be fronted or moved to the end of the sentence
- stand alone test: can stand alone as a response to a question
- the study of meaning in a language
Lexical semantics
- the meaning of words
Compositional semantics
- the meaning of sentence
- how usage/context affects and interacts with meaning
- the relationship between a linguistic sign and a thing or state of affairs
- what a linguistic sign refers to
- the real thing in the world
- the mental representation of what a word means
- like a dictionary definition
- the basic mental image that a word represents
- words that have the same or almost the same meaning
- a word X is a hyponym of word Y if X is always necessarily Y
- oak = hyponym of tree
- a word X is a hypernym of word Y, if all cases of Y are necessarily also X
- tree = hypernym of oak
- a word that is the opposite of another word
Gradable antonyms
- opposites that are on opposing ends of a continuum
Complementary antonyms
- opposites that are polar opposites and not relative
Relational antonyms
- opposites dependent on their opposing pair, from an opposing point of view
- two unrelated words that have the same sound, regardless of spelling
- a word for part of something that is extended to refer to the larger thing of which it is a part
- terms are deictic if their reference is dependent on context
- place, time, who is speaking (pronouns, demonstratives, temporal deixis)
Situational truth conditions
- most sentences are true or false depending on the situation
- sentence that is never true in any situation
- sentence that is always true
- sentence that is false if true and true if false
- a relationship between two sentences such that if the first is true, the second must be true
- "reading between the lines"
- meanings conveyed by speakers that are not necessarily stated outright
Cancellation test
- entailments cannot be cancelled
- implicatures can be cancelled
- reference; what's in the world
- sense; what's in your mind
- doer of action
- undergoer of action
- endpoint of action
- origin of action
- receives sensory input, usually not in control
- what is used to accomplish the action
- results in multiple readings
- lexical ambiguity
- structural ambiguity
- result of semantic rule violations
- anomaly understood as meaningful
- meaning not composed - fixed
- categorical requirements
- prevents ungrammatical combinations
- semantic requirements
Grice's Maxims of conversation
1 - maxim of quality (be truthful)
2 - maxim of quantity (give an appropriate amount of info)
3 - maxim of relevance (stay on the topic)
4 - maxim of manner (be orderly and unambiguous
Flouting a maxim
- purposefully violating a maxim in order to get a particular message across (listener understands this)
- what gives us conversational implicatures